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Sura Saba'

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This article is an introduction to the Sura Saba'; to read its text see text:Sura Saba'.
Sura Saba'
al-Ahzab← →Fatir
سوره سبأ.jpg
Sura Number 34
Juz' 22
Revelation
Revelation Number 58
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 54
Word Count 887
Letter Count 3596

Sūra Sabaʾ (Arabic: سورة سبأ) is the thirty forth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty two. This sura is named Saba' because it contains the history of the people of Saba'. It is one of the five suras of the Qur'an which begin with the praise of God. Different issues are discussed in this sura, all of which can be categorized under three general titles of the Unity of God, prophethood and Resurrection.

Verse twenty two about intercession and verse twenty eight about prophethood for all are two of the famous verses of this sura. The consonance of the mountains and birds with Prophet David (a), his armor-making, Arm flood in the gardens of Saba', jinns' servitude to Solomon (a) and his control of the wind are among historical stories of this sura.

Introduction

  • Naming

The name of this sura is adopted from its verse fifteen which is about the history of the people of Saba'. The word "Saba'" is mentioned twice in the Qur'an (once in in this sura and the other time in Qur'an 27). The other name of this sura is "David" because some of the miracles of Prophet David (a) are mentioned in verses ten and eleven of this sura.

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura Saba' is a Makki sura and was the fifty eighth sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of compilation, it is the fifty eighth sura of the Qur'an, located in juz' twenty two.

  • Number of Verses and Other Features

Sura Saba' has fifty four verses comprised of 3596 letters. Regarding volume, it is considered among Mathani suras and almost small suras, a little more than one hizb. Some considered verse six of this sura to have revealed in Medina. The number of verses of this sura is fifty four and according to reciters of Syria, they are fifty five, but the first number is more famous. Only five suras in the Qur'an begin with the praise of God, and in three suras of Saba', Qur'an 35 and Qur'an 6, it is for the creation of the sky and the earth and other creatures.

Some exegetes believe that God ended Qur'an 33 (the sura before sura Saba') with mentioning the goal of obligation and rewarding good-doers due to their deeds and punishment of sinners because of their sins; therefore, He begins sura Saba' with the praise of God's blessings and mentioning His unlimited power. Some exegetes considered revelation of this sura after Qur'an 31.

Content

Like many Makki suras, this sura too discusses about the three principle beliefs in Islam; the Unity of God, prophethood and the Resurrection. Then, it mentions the punishment of those who reject these principles or cast doubts on them and then it discusses the ways of removing those doubts by wisdom, advice and debate. This sura discusses about the resurrection at the beginning and at the end of the sura more than other principles of belief. Secondary issues discussed in this sura are:

Content of Sura Saba'[1]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Answer to polytheists' thoughts about the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First thought: verses 1-6
Impossibility of happening the Judgment Day
 
Second thought: Verses 7-21
The wrongness of the Prophet's (s) word about the resurrection of the dead
 
Third thouth: Verses 22-28
Preventing the punishment of disbelievers by partners ascribed to God
 
Fourth thouth: Verses 29-30
Not happening the Judgement Day because of its unknown time
 
Fifth thouth: Verses 31-33
Wrongness of the Qur'an's word about the hereafter
 
Sixth thouth: Verses 34-39
Not punishing rich disbelievers
 
Seventh thouth: Verses 40-42
Intercession of polytheists by angels
 
Eighth thouth: Verses 43-54
Falseness of the Prophet's (s) words about the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First answer: verses 1-2
Power of God for holding the Judgement Day
 
First answer: Verses 7-9
Power of God over destruction of disbelievers
 
First answer: Verses 22-23
Partners ascribed to God have no role in the management of the world
 
Answer: Verse 30
Happening the Judgement Day at its specified time
 
Answer: Verses 31-33
Regret of disbelievers in the hereafter for rejecting the Qur'an and following the leaders of falsehood
 
First answer: Verses 34-38
No wealth is a sign of closeness to God
 
Answer: Verses 40-42
Rejection of polytheists by angels on the Judgement Day
 
First issue: Verse 43
Polytheists' slanders against the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second answer: verse 3
Knowledge of God about holding the Judgment Day
 
Second answer: Verses 10-21
The necessity of happening the Judgment Day for rewarding the grateful and punishing ungrateful ones
 
Second answer: Verse 24
Daily sustenance of all humans is only in the hand of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second answer: Verse 39
Getting close to God by giving properties in His way
 
 
 
 
 
Second issue: Verses 44-45
Disbelievers have no arguments to oppose the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third answer: verses 4-6
Rewarding believers and punishing disbelievers in the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
Third answer: Verses 25-26
Everyone will receive the rewards of his actions on the Judgement Day
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third issue: Verse 46
The Prophet's (s) duty is only warning
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth answer: Verses 27-28
Disqualification of ascribed partners of God for being worshipped
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth issue: Verse 47
The Prophet (s) expects no reward from you
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fifth issue: Verses 48-49
All the words of the Prophet (s) are true
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sixth issue: Verse 50
The Prophet (s) follows divine revelation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seventh issue: Verses 51-54
Believe in the Prophet (s) so that you would be rescued from the punishment

Stories and Historical Accounts

  • Granting blessings to David (a), the consonance of the mountains and birds with him and his armor-making. (Verses 10-11)
  • Controlling the wind by Solomon (a), melting copper, Jinns' obedience to Solomon (a) and making buildings and dishes, the death of Solomon (a), knowing the death of Solomon (a) after his walking stick was eaten by termites (Verses 12-14)
  • The story of people of Saba', their developed gardens and happening of Flood of Arim to them due to the ingratitude of blessings (Verses 15-19)
  • Dialogue of the subjugated with dictators on the Day of Judgement (Verses 30-31)

Famous Verses

Intercession by Divine Permission

This verse is a rejection of the action of polytheists in worshipping idols which they considered a way for getting close to God; while in this verse, God mentions that He accepts no intercession except from those to whom He has given permission for it and only conditional intercession of some creatures is approved.

Coverage of the Prophethood

From this verse, some exegetes have deduced the coverage of the mission of the Prophet (s) over all the people of the world. Allama Tabataba'i quoted from al-Raghib al-Isfahani who considered the word "kāffa" to mean "reject and prevent" regarding which, the meaning of the verse would be "We did not send you except that you prevent all mankind from sinning while you are a bearer of good news and warner". From the verse, he deduced the coverage of the mission of the Prophet (s) by others limited to the Lordship of God, explaining that, if there was another god, sending one messenger for all creatures would not be possible.

Merits and Benefits

Different hadiths are mentioned about the merits of recitation of this sura that anyone suggesting that whoever recites the Qur'an 34, all prophets will be his friends and companions on the Day of Judgement. Also, it is transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that anyone who recites at night, the Qur'an 34 and Qur'an 35 which begin with the word "hamd", he will be protected by God all that night, and if he recites them during daytime, he will receive no pain on that day and will be given so much blessings in this world and in the hereafter that he had never thought of or wished for.

External Links

Notes

  1. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره سبأ in Farsi Wikishia.