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Sura al-Duha

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Sura al-Duha
al-Layl← →al-Sharh
سوره ضحی.jpg
Sura Number 93
Juz' 30
Revelation
Revelation Number 11
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 11
Word Count 40
Letter Count 165
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Duha; to read its text see text:Sura al-Duha.

Sura al-Ḍuḥā (Arabic: سورة الضحی) or Sura Wa l-Ḍuḥā (Arabic: سورة والضحی) is 93rd sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' 30. This sura is among suras revealed to the Prophet (s) at once. About the occasion of revelation of this sura, it is narrated that it was revealed to the Prophet (s) after a period that nothing had revealed to him and disbelievers criticized him, saying that God forsake him.

Sura al-Duha addressed the Prophet (s) saying that God has not forsaken you. Then, it mentions the blessings of God upon the Prophet (s) and advises about orphans and beggars and asks him to proclaim the blessings of God for people. It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura Wa l-Duha, it will be upon the Prophet (s) to intercede for him and the reciter will receive rewards ten times of the count of all the beggars and orphans.

Introduction

Naming

This sura is called "al-Duha" or "Wa l-Duha". "al-Duha" means "the day and light". The reason for this naming is that at the beginning of this sura, God swears by "al-Duha".

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Duha is a Makki sura and the 11th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of the Qur'an, it is 93rd sura located in juz' 30.

Number of Verses and Other Characteristics

Sura al-Duha has 11 verses, 40 words, and 165 letters. Regarding volume, this sura is among mufassalat. It is said that Sura al-Duha is one of the four suras revealed to the Prophet (s) as once.

Content

Sura al-Duha begins with two oaths. It then gives good news to the Prophet (s) that God never forsake him. Then, it gives the good news that God will give him so much that he (s) will be pleased. In the last part of the sura, it reminds about the past life of the Prophet (s) and mentions that always God blessed him and in most difficult moments supported him; thus, in the last verses, it orders him to be kind to orphans and the needy as a gratitude for those blessings and asks him to proclaim them.

Content of Sura al-Duha[1]
 
 
 
 
God's support for the noble Prophet (s) in performing the messenger's tasks
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First issue: verses 1-5
God's support for the Prophet (s) in this world and the hereafter
 
Second issue: verses 6-8
Different supports of God for the noble Prophet (s)
 
Third issue: verses 9-11
Criteria influential in continuation of God's support for the noble Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-3
God would never forsake the Prophet (s)
 
Emotional support: verse 6
Taking care of the Prophet (s) when he (s) was an orphan
 
First criterion: verse 9
Observing the rights of orphans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verse 4
God supports the Prophet (s) both in this world and in the hereafter
 
Religious support: verse 7
Guiding the Prophet (s) to the Unity of God and religious rulings
 
Second criterion: verse 10
Respectful treatment of the needy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third point: verse 5
God will support the Prophet (s) in the future too
 
Social support: verse 8
Making the Prophet (s) needless of others
 
Third criterion: verse 11
Proclaiming and thanking for the blessings of God

Occasion of Revelation

About the occasion of revelation of Sura al-Duha, it is said that for a while, nothing was revealed to the Prophet (s), so some of the enemies criticized him saying that God forsake His messenger (s). Then, Sura al-Duha was revealed and made the Prophet (s) happy.[Note 1]

About the occasion of revelation of verse 5 of this sura, some Shi'a and Sunni exegetes said that, the Prophet (s) once saw that his daughter Fatima (a) was wearing a cloak made of camel's skin and was breastfeeding her children and by one hand was grinding the flour, so, he (s) cried and said, "O my daughter! Tolerate the bitterness of this world for the sweetness of the hereafter." Then, verse 5 of Sura al-Duha was revealed.[Note 2]

Merits and Benefits

It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Duha, it is upon the Prophet (s) to intercede for him in the hereafter and that person will receive rewards ten times of the count of all the beggars and orphans. It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that whoever recites Suras Wa l-Duha and Qur'an 92 (Sura al-Layl), Qur'an 94 (Sura al-Sharh) and Qur'an 91 (Sura al-Shams) many times at night or during the day, on the Judgment Day, all the things belonging to him will give testimony in favor of him, even his hairs, skin, flesh, bones, blood, vessels, and nerves.

Notes

  1. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  1. ما وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَما قَلىٰ: Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor is He displeased with you. (Qur'an 93:3)
  2. وَلَسَوفَ يُعطيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرضىٰ: Soon your Lord will give you [that with which] you will be pleased. (Qur'an 93:5)

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره ضحی in Farsi WikiShia.