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Sura al-Humaza

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This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Humaza; to read its text see text:Sura al-Humaza.
Sura al-Humaza
al-'Asr← →al-Fil
سوره همزه.jpg
Sura Number 104
Juz' 30
Revelation
Revelation Number 32
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 9
Word Count 33
Letter Count 134

Sūra al-Humaza (Arabic: سورة الهُمَزَة) or Sūra al-Lumaza (Arabic: سورة اللُمَزَة) is 104th sura of the glorious Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in the 30th juz'. The words "humaza" and "lumaza" mean "scandal-monger" and "slanderer". In this sura, God warns those who amass wealth and want to gain superiority over people by slandering that they will be punished with a crushing fire.

Some exegetes believe that this sura was revealed about al-Walid b. al-Mughira who made slanders against the Prophet (s). Another group who considered it about a group who wanted to defame the Prophet (s).

About the merit of recitation of Sura al-Humaza, it is narrated that everyone who recites it in daily prayers, will be free from poverty and will receive more of daily sustenance, and will be away from horrible forms of death and as it is mentioned in a hadith, he will receive rewards as much as the world.

Names and Cause of Naming

The reason for naming Sura al-Humaza is that the word "al-humaza" is mentioned in its first verse. Another name of this sura is "al-Lumaza".[1] This word is also mentioned in this sura. The words "humaza" and "lumaza" mean "scandal-monger" and "slanderer". There are disagreements about the exact meanings of these words; for example, some have said that "humaza" means "fault-finding in the presence of a person" while "lumaza" means slandering and backbiting in the absence of a person or vice versa.[2]

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Humaza is a Makki sura and the 32nd sura revealed to the Prophet (s). This sura is 104th sura in the current compilation of the Qur'an.[3]

Number of Verses and Words

Sura al-Humaza has 9 verses, 33 words, and 134 letters. This sura is among mufassalat suras (having several short verses) and short suras of the Qur'an which is located in juz' 30.[4]

Content

This sura has a serious warning for those who love to amass wealth and want to gain superiority over people; thus, they try to find faults in people.[5] They think that wealth makes them immortal, while it does not and their final abode will be the hell.[6]

Content of Sura al-Humaza[7]
 
 
Warning to slanderers who belittle believers
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First topic: verses 1-3
Manners of slanderers against believers
 
Second topic: verses 4-9
Scorn and abjection of slanderers in the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First behavior: verse 1
Mockery and slandering believers
 
First point: verses 4-5
Belittling the personality of slanderers in the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second behavior: verses 2-3
Priding themselves on their wealth
 
Second point: verses 6-9
Attributes of the hellfire

Occasion of Revelation

Some exegetes believe that this sura was revealed about al-Walid b. al-Mughira who made slanders against the Prophet (s) in his absence and derided him in his presence. Another group considered it about other persons such as Ubayy b. Khalaf, Akhnas b. Shurayq, Jamil b. 'Amir, and al-'As b. Wa'il who tried to discredit the Prophet (s). It was when God sent Sura al-Humaza to the Prophet (s).[8]

Merits and Benefits

It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that everyone who recites this sura in daily prayers, will be free from poverty and will receive more of daily sustenance, and will be away from horrible forms of death[9] and as it is mentioned in a hadith, he will receive rewards as much as the world.[10] Also, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that everyone who recites it will be rewarded ten times more than the number of those who ridiculed the Prophet (s) and his companions.[11]

In some hadiths, benefits have been mentioned for recitation of this sura such as keeping away evil eye,[12] and keeping away sore eye.[13]


Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1268.
  2. See: Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 27, p. 309.
  3. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 166.
  4. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1268.
  5. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 358.
  6. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1268.
  7. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  8. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 5, p. 588.
  9. Fiqh al-Riḍā, p. 344.
  10. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 482.
  11. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 755.
  12. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 755.
  13. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 755.

References

  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1416 AH.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Second edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1974.
  • Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Iḥtijāj ʿalā ahl al-lijāj. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Khursān. Mashhad: Nashr-i Murtaḍā, 1403 AH.