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Sura al-Ma'arij

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Sura al-Ma'arij
al-Haqqa← →Nuh
سوره معارج.jpg
Sura Number 70
Juz' 29
Revelation
Revelation Number 77 or 79
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 44
Word Count 217
Letter Count 972
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Ma'arij; to read its text see text:Sura al-Ma'arij.

Sura al-Maʿārij (Arabic: سورة المعارج) is 70th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' 29. "al-Ma'arij" means "degrees". This sura is called "al-ma'arij" because this word is mentioned in verse 3 of this sura. Sura al-Ma'arij begins with the story of someone who asked God to punish him. Then, it mentions the characteristics of Resurrection and some of the characteristics of believers and the states of disbelievers and finally warns polytheists and disbelievers and speaks about Resurrection.

About the context of revelation of verses 1 to 3 of this sura, it is mentioned that these verses are about the event of Ghadir and a person who did not accept the wilaya of Imam Ali (a). About the merits of recitation of this sura, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Ma'arij, God will give him rewards of those who keep their trusts and promises and those who observe upon performing their daily prayers.

Introduction

Naming

This sura is called al-Ma'arij because this word is mentioned in verse 3 of this sura and this verse considers God, Dhi al-Ma'arij (Owner of Degrees). This sura is also called "Sa'ala" and "Waqi'", because these two words are mentioned in the first verse (Sa'al-a sa'il-un bi 'adhab'in waqi').

Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Ma'arij is a Makki sura. It is 79th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of the Qur'an, it is 70th sura located in juz' 29.

Number of Verses

Sura al-Ma'arij has 44 verses, 217 words and 972 letters.

Content

It is said that regarding topics, Sura al-Ma'arij has four parts: In the first part, it speaks about a quick punishment for a person who rejected some of the actions of the noble Prophet (s). Second part: it mentions some of the characteristics of Resurrection, events preceding it and the states of disbelievers on that day. Third part: speaks about some characteristics of humans which are good or bad and make them dwellers of the paradise or the hell. Fourth part: includes warnings for polytheists and disbelievers and returns to the issue of Resurrection and ends the sura.

Content of Sura al-Ma'arij[1]
 
 
 
 
The only way of entering the paradise is servitude of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First speech: verses 1-18
The hell, the abode of disbelievers
 
Second speech: verses 19-35
The paradise, the abode of the servants of God
 
Third speech: verses 36-44
Humiliation, the fate of hypocrites
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-7
Definiteness of the occurrence of the Day of Resurrection
 
First point: verses 19-21
Human instinct toward avarice and greed
 
First point: verses 36-37
Wrong reaction of hypocrites toward the Prophet's (a) advice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verses 8-14
Disbelievers have no escape from the divine punishment
 
Second point: verses 22-34
The method of God's servants for controlling carnal desires
 
Second point: verse 38-41
Blind greed of hypocrites for entering the paradise
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verses 15-18
the burning hell, the fate of disbelievers
 
Second point: verse 35
The paradise, the reward for God's servants
 
Second point: verse 42-44
Eternal humiliation of hypocrites

Famous Verses

سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ لِّلْكَافِرِ‌ينَ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَافِعٌ
"An asker asked for a punishment sure to befall (1,2)"

According to Tafsir Majma' al-bayan and some Sunni sources, these verses were revealed about the event of Ghadir. About the context of revelation of these verses, it is mentioned that, after the Prophet (s) announced the wilaya of Imam Ali (a), a person called Nu'man b. Harith al-Fihri went to the Prophet (s) and objected to him saying that, "you ordered us to accept the Unity of God, your mission, jihad, hajj, fasting, prayer and zakat and we accepted. But, you are not satisfied with that and appointed this young man and announced him our master. Was this announcement of wilaya, your decision or from God?" When the Prophet (s) said that it was from God, the man incredulously asked God that a stone hit him from the sky if that appointment was from Him; and suddenly, a stone hit him on the head from the sky and killed him at once and then this verse was revealed.

وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَّعْلُومٌ لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُ‌ومِ
"And there is a known share in whose wealth,(24) for the beggar and the deprived (25)"

These verses remind about taking care about the deprived and that people should divide two portions from their properties: one for the deprived they need to find and another portion for beggars who ask themselves. Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about "haqq-un ma'lum" (a known right) and he (a) said, "it is other than the obligatory zakat and means that God gives human being a wealth and he divides a part of it and use it for relating with his blood relatives and overcomes their hardships."

Merits and Benefits

About the merits of this sura, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Ma'arij, God will give him the rewards of those who keep their trusts and promises and those who observe upon performing their daily prayers. It is also narrated from Imam al-Baqir (a) that whoever keeps reciting this sura, God will not ask about his sins on the Day of Judgment and will accommodate him in the paradise with the Prophet (s) and the Ahl al-Bayt (a). In Tafsir al-Burhan, some benefits are mentioned for this sura including release of prisoners and captives and the fulfillment of one's requests.

Notes

  1. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.

References

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