Priority: b, Quality: b

Sura al-Mumtahana

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sura al-Mumtahana
al-Hashr ← →al-Saff
سوره ممتحنه.jpg
Sura Number 60
Juz' 28
Revelation
Revelation Number 91
Makki/Madani Madani
Information
Verse Count 13
Word Count 325
Letter Count 1560
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Mumtahana; to read its text see text:Sura al-Mumtahana.

Sūra al-Mumtaḥana (Arabic:سورة الممتحنة) is 60th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' 28. This sura is called "al-mumtahana" because in verse 10 of this sura, the Prophet (s) is ordered to test Immigrant women to find about their motives for leaving their husbands and immigrating from Mecca to Medina. Sura al-Mumtahana speaks about the friendship of believers with disbelievers and seriously prohibits it. About the merits of recitation of this sura, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites this sura, angels send salutations to him and ask God to forgive him; and if he dies on that day, he has died a martyr and believers will intercede for him on the Judgement Day.

Introduction

Naming

This sura is called "al-mumtahana" because in verse 10 of this sura, the Prophet (s) is ordered to test women of the Immigrants to find about their motives for leaving their husbands and immigrating from Mecca to Medina and then decides about them.[1] Sura al-Mumtahana has also been called "Sura al-Imtihan"[2] and "Sura al-Mawadda".[3] It is to note that "mawadda" means "affection and friendliness"[4] and is mentioned three times in this sura.

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Mumtahana is a Madani sura and the 91st sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of the Qur'an, it is 60th sura[5] located in juz' 28.

Number of Verses and Other Features

Sura al-Mumtahana has 13 verses, 352 words and 1560 letters. This sura is among Mufassalat suras (having several short verses). Regarding size, it is about one fourth of one hizb.[6]

Content

Sura al-Mumtahana is about friendship between believers and disbelievers and seriously prohibits it. At the beginning of the sura, at the end of it and in the middle, the sura mentions some rulings about Immigrant women and their allegiance.[7]

Content of Sura al-Mumtahana[8]
 
 
 
 
 
 
Breaking the friendship with the enemies of Islam
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First discussion: verses 1-9
Not befriending hostile disbelievers
 
Second discussion: verses 10-11
Breaking the marital relationship with the enemies of Islam
 
Third discussion: verse 12
Taking pledges from new Muslim women
 
Fourth discussion: verse 13
Not befriending Jews
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First issue: verses 1-3
Reasons for not befriending the enemies of God
 
First issue: verse 10
Separation of women believers from disbelieving husbands
 
First issue: verse 12
ideological pledge
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second issue: verses 4-7
Taking example from Ibrahim (a) in dealing with hostile disbelievers
 
Second issue: verses 10-11
Separation of men believers from their disbelieving wives
 
Second issue: verse 12
Moral and social pledges
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third issue: verses 8-9
The duty of believers against disbelievers who are not enemies of Islam
 
 
 
 
 
Third issue: verse 12
Political pledge

Ocassion of Revelation

Two context of revelation are mentioned in exegetical books about the verses at the beginning and the end of (verse 10) of sura al-Mumtahana.

Prohibiting Friendship with Polytheists

About the context of revelation for the verses at the beginning of Sura al-Mumtahana, it is mentioned that: Hatib b. Abi Balta'a was among Muslims who had immigrated to Medina; but his family had stayed in Mecca and he had no relatives in Medina to support him. Before the immigration of Muslims for the conquest of Mecca, he wrote a letter and gave it to a woman named Sareh to give to the people of Mecca and inform them about the Prophet's (a) movement and this way could support his family; but the Prophet (s) was informed about the two spies and give the mission to Imam Ali (a), al-Zubayr and Miqdad to capture that woman. They found that woman in the middle of the way between Medina and Mecca.[9] First, she denied everything. They searched her stuffs, but they did not find anything. They decided to return; but, Imam Ali (a) said that neither the Prophet (s) tells lie to us, nor do we do so. So, he (a) became angry at the woman and Sareh took out the letter hidden in her hair. The Prophet (s) asked to bring Hatib. He apologized and said that he was a believer, but he wanted to support his family. Then, the first verses of this sura were revealed and prohibited Muslims from friendship with polytheists.[10]

Testing Immigrant Women

About the context of revelation for verse 10 of Sura al-Mumtahana, it is mentioned that: In Hudaybiyya, the Prophet (s) signed a peace treaty with polytheists of Mecca. In this peace treaty, it was mentioned that if a man from polytheists goes to Medina, Muslims have to return him, but if a person goes from Medina to Mecca and takes refuge there, polytheists do not have to return him. After a while, a woman called Sabi'a, daughter of Harith went to Medina from Mecca. Verses ten to twelve were revealed. The Prophet (s) asked that woman to swear if her going to Medina was only because of seeking religion and rejecting disbelief. This swearing was that test mentioned in the verse 10 of this sura, saying that, "When faithful women come to you as immigrants, test them. Allah knows best [the state of] their faith." After this swear, the noble Prophet (s) argued that the treaty only had mentioned about men, not women and did not give immigrant women to polytheists; and based on the verse 10, paid those women's dowry to their polytheist husbands and those women could marry again in Medina.[11]

Historical Stories

In Sura al-Mumtahana, the stories of Ibrahim's (a) rejection of idol-worshipping and asking forgiveness for his father, Azar are mentioned. (verse 4)

Merits and Benefits

Whoever recites Sura al-Mumtahana, believers will intercede for him on the Judgement Day and he will be protected from some diseases. In a hadith from Imam al-Sajjad (a), it is mentioned that whoever recites this sura in his obligatory and recommended prayers, God prepares his heart to accept faith, makes his eyes bright, will never inflict him with poverty and that he and his children will not be afflicted with insanity.[12] It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites this sura, angels send salutations to him and ask God to forgive him; and if he dies on that day, he has died a martyr and believers will intercede for him on the Judgement Day.[13]

Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1255.
  2. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1255.
  3. Suyūṭī, al-Itqān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 201.
  4. Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān, under the word «ودّ».
  5. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 168.
  6. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1255.
  7. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 388.
  8. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  9. Ibn Khaldūn, Tārīkh Ibn Khaldūn, vol. 1, p. 441.
  10. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr nimūna, vol. 24, p. 9.
  11. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 9, p. 410.
  12. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 118.
  13. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 351.

References

  • Baḥrānī, Hāshim b. Sulaymān al-. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Maḥmūd b. Jaʿfar Mūsawī Zarandī. Tehran: [n.p], 1334 Sh.
  • Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. Tārīkh Ibn Khaldūn. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Āyatī. Tehran: Muʾassisa-yi Muṭāliʿāt wa Taḥqīqāt-i Farhangī, 1363 Sh.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Narkaz-i Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1371 Sh.
  • Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad al-. Mufradāt alfāẓ al-Qurʾān. Edited by Ṣafwān ʿAdnān Dāwūdī. Beirut: Dār al-Shāmīyya, 1412 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Qom: Raḍī, 1368 Sh.
  • Suyūṭī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-. Al-Itqān fī ʿulūm al-Qurʾān. Edited by Fawāz Aḥmad Zamralī. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿArabī, 1421 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Bāqir Musawī Hamidānī. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Tehran: Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.