|al-Hashr ← →al-Saff|
Sūra al-Mumtaḥana (Arabic:سورة الممتحنة) is 60th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' 28. This sura is called "al-mumtahana" because in verse 10 of this sura, the Prophet (s) is ordered to test Immigrant women to find about their motives for leaving their husbands and immigrating from Mecca to Medina. Sura al-Mumtahana speaks about the friendship of believers with disbelievers and seriously prohibits it. About the merits of recitation of this sura, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites this sura, angels send salutations to him and ask God to forgive him; and if he dies on that day, he has died a martyr and believers will intercede for him on the Judgement Day.
This sura is called "al-mumtahana" because in verse 10 of this sura, the Prophet (s) is ordered to test women of the Immigrants to find about their motives for leaving their husbands and immigrating from Mecca to Medina and then decides about them. Sura al-Mumtahana has also been called "Sura al-Imtihan" and "Sura al-Mawadda". It is to note that "mawadda" means "affection and friendliness" and is mentioned three times in this sura.
Place and Order of Revelation
Number of Verses and Other Features
Sura al-Mumtahana is about friendship between believers and disbelievers and seriously prohibits it. At the beginning of the sura, at the end of it and in the middle, the sura mentions some rulings about Immigrant women and their allegiance.
Ocassion of Revelation
Two context of revelation are mentioned in exegetical books about the verses at the beginning and the end of (verse 10) of sura al-Mumtahana.
Prohibiting Friendship with Polytheists
About the context of revelation for the verses at the beginning of Sura al-Mumtahana, it is mentioned that: Hatib b. Abi Balta'a was among Muslims who had immigrated to Medina; but his family had stayed in Mecca and he had no relatives in Medina to support him. Before the immigration of Muslims for the conquest of Mecca, he wrote a letter and gave it to a woman named Sareh to give to the people of Mecca and inform them about the Prophet's (a) movement and this way could support his family; but the Prophet (s) was informed about the two spies and give the mission to Imam Ali (a), al-Zubayr and Miqdad to capture that woman. They found that woman in the middle of the way between Medina and Mecca. First, she denied everything. They searched her stuffs, but they did not find anything. They decided to return; but, Imam Ali (a) said that neither the Prophet (s) tells lie to us, nor do we do so. So, he (a) became angry at the woman and Sareh took out the letter hidden in her hair. The Prophet (s) asked to bring Hatib. He apologized and said that he was a believer, but he wanted to support his family. Then, the first verses of this sura were revealed and prohibited Muslims from friendship with polytheists.
Testing Immigrant Women
About the context of revelation for verse 10 of Sura al-Mumtahana, it is mentioned that: In Hudaybiyya, the Prophet (s) signed a peace treaty with polytheists of Mecca. In this peace treaty, it was mentioned that if a man from polytheists goes to Medina, Muslims have to return him, but if a person goes from Medina to Mecca and takes refuge there, polytheists do not have to return him. After a while, a woman called Sabi'a, daughter of Harith went to Medina from Mecca. Verses ten to twelve were revealed. The Prophet (s) asked that woman to swear if her going to Medina was only because of seeking religion and rejecting disbelief. This swearing was that test mentioned in the verse 10 of this sura, saying that, "When faithful women come to you as immigrants, test them. Allah knows best [the state of] their faith." After this swear, the noble Prophet (s) argued that the treaty only had mentioned about men, not women and did not give immigrant women to polytheists; and based on the verse 10, paid those women's dowry to their polytheist husbands and those women could marry again in Medina.
In Sura al-Mumtahana, the stories of Ibrahim's (a) rejection of idol-worshipping and asking forgiveness for his father, Azar are mentioned. (verse 4)
Merits and Benefits
Whoever recites Sura al-Mumtahana, believers will intercede for him on the Judgement Day and he will be protected from some diseases. In a hadith from Imam al-Sajjad (a), it is mentioned that whoever recites this sura in his obligatory and recommended prayers, God prepares his heart to accept faith, makes his eyes bright, will never inflict him with poverty and that he and his children will not be afflicted with insanity. It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites this sura, angels send salutations to him and ask God to forgive him; and if he dies on that day, he has died a martyr and believers will intercede for him on the Judgement Day.
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Mumtahana.|
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره ممتحنه in Farsi WikiShia.