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Sura al-Muzzammil

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This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Muzzammil; to read its text see text:Sura al-Muzzammil.
Sura al-Muzzammil
Jinn← →Al-Muddaththir
سوره مزمل.jpg
Sura Number 73
Juz' 29
Revelation
Revelation Number 3 or 4
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 20
Word Count 300
Letter Count 853

Sūra al-Muzzammil (Arabic: سورة المزّمّل) is the 73rd Sura of the Qur'an in the traditional order of compilation and one of the first suras of the Qur'an which was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (s). It is a Makki sura (it was revealed in Mecca), and one of the Mufassalat suras of the Qur'an. It consists of 20 verses. The sura is called so because the Prophet (s) is addressed as "al-Muzzammil" in its first verse. The main topics of this sura include: calling the Prophet (s) and other Muslims to worship God at nights, recite the Qur'an, and be patient with unbelievers.

Introduction

Name

The sura is called so because the Prophet Muhammad (s) is addressed in its first verse as "al-Muzzammil" (bundled up), because he had enfolded himself with cloth after the first revelation of the Qur'an. Some believe that the Prophet's (s) was bundled up because of the heavy mission he was assigned after the Bi'that.

Some people believe that the first verse of Sura al-Muzzammil has made the night prayer obligatory for the Prophet (s) and his Sahaba. However, the obligation was abrogated by God in the verse 20, "recite from it as much as is easy".

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Muzzammil is a Makki sura of the Qur'an which was revealed after Sura al-Qalam. It is one of the al-mufassalat suras of the Qur'an. The sura is the 73th sura, in the middle of the 3rd hizb of the 29th juz' of the current compilation of Qur'an. Some people take Sura al-Muzzammil to be the 4th sura in the chronological order of revelation. Others take it to be the second or the third.

Number of Verses and Words

Sura al-Muzzammil has 20 verses, 300 words, and 853 letters. It is one of the al-mufassalat suras (the ones with short and numerous verses).

Content

This sura calls the Prophet (s) and Muslims to perform night prayers and recite the Qur'an. It also recommends the Prophet (s) to be patient with the accusations by unbelievers, such as the accusations that the Prophet (s) is a poet or mad.

The content of this sura can be summarized in the 5 following topics:

  • Calling the Prophet (s) to worship God at nights, recite the Qur'an, and prepare himself for his mission,
  • Calling him to be patient, resistant, and tolerant with his opponents,
  • The resurrection, sending Prophet Moses (a), to Pharaoh, and Pharaoh's punishment,
  • Loosening the obligations declared in the first verses of the sura with regard to night worships,
  • Calling people to recite the Qur'an, say prayers, pay the zakat, donate for the sake of God, and istighfar.
Content of Sura al-Muzzammil[1]
 
 
 
 
Preparing the grounds for the success of the Prophet (a) in preaching the religion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First topic: verses 1-14
Duties of the Prophet (a) for having success in preaching religion
 
Second topic: verses 15-19
Warning polytheists to accept the Prophet's (a) invitation
 
Third topic: verses 20
Duties of believers in companionship with the Prophet (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First duty: Verses 1-7
Keeping night vigil and worshipping
 
First warning: verses 15-16
Consequence of opposing the Prophet (a) in this world
 
First duty: verse 20
Assigning a part of night to worship
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second duty: Verse 8
Detachment toward God
 
Second warning: verses 17-19
Punishment for opposing the Prophet (a) in the hereafter
 
Second duty: verse 20
Doing obligatory and recommended good deeds
 
 
 
Third duty: verse 9
Trusting in God in all affairs
 
 
 
Fourth duty: verses 10-14
Forbearing the words and slanders of opposers

Al-Tartil Verse

"And recite the Qur'an in a measured tone." (verse number 4)
Main article: Al-Tartil Verse

A well-known verse of Sura al-Muzzammil is its 4th number which says "recite the Qur'an with 'tartil'". "Tartil" is said to mean "adjustment" and "rhythmic order". Here it refers to the recitation of Qur'anic verses in a slow, distinct way, with a proper pronunciation of the letters, articulation of the words, and reflection in the notions of the verses and their consequences.

Imam 'Ali (a) is quoted as saying: "pronounce Qur'anic words in a distinct way, do not recite them like poems, and do not separate them. With the recitation of the Qur'an, get your hearts to moan and do not just aim to get to the end of the Sura". According to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), "'Tartil' consists in asking God to give you the Heaven when you recite a verse of the Heaven, and to take refuge to God when you recite a verse of the Hell". According to another hadith from him, "'Tartil' is to recite the Qur'an in a euphonious way".

Virtues and Features

There are some hadiths concerning the virtues of Sura al-Muzzammil and people who recite it. For example, the one who recites it will be pure in this world and the Afterlife. Or the recitation of Sura al-Muzzammil will ease the difficulties of this world and the Afterlife.

Notes

  1. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره مزمل in Farsi WikiShia.