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Sura al-Qiyama

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Sura al-Qiyama
al-Muddaththir← →al-Insan
سوره قیامه.jpg
Sura Number 75
Juz' 29
Revelation
Revelation Number 31
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 40
Word Count 164
Letter Count 676
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Qiyama; to read its text see text:Sura al-Qiyama.

Sūra al-Qīyāma (Arabic:سورة القيامة) is the seventy fifth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty nine. This sura is called al-Qiyama because it begins with God's oath upon the Qiyama. Sura al-Qiyama speaks about the definiteness of the occurrence of the resurrection and description of that day. It describes humans on the Day of Resurrection to two groups of happy and fresh and sad and scowling, and emphasizes on this point that human being is a witness to himself and his actions.

Verses three and four of this sura are among its famous verses which say that God not only has the power to reconstruct decayed bones of humans upon resurrection, but can He also recreate the fingertips. It is the verse that is said to be referring to the fingerprint by which each person is identified.

About the merits of the recitation of this sura, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that, "whoever recites the Sura al-Qiyama, Jabra'il (Gabriel) and I will testify for him on the Day of Resurrection that he believed in that day and his face will be brighter than others then."

Introduction

  • Naming

This sura is called Sura al-Qiyama or Sura La Uqsim-u (لَاُقسِمُ). The two names are adopted from the first verse of the sura, where God swears upon the Day of Resurrection.[1]

  • Order and place of revelation

Sura al-Qiyama is a Makki sura and the thirty first sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of the Qur'an, it is the seventy fifth sura[2] located in juz' 29.

  • Number of verses and other features

Sura al-Qiyama has forty verses, 164 words and 676 letters. Regarding volume, it is among Mufassalat suras (having several short verses).[3]

Content

Sura al-Qiyama speaks about definiteness of the occurrence of the Qiyama and describes humans in the hereafter in two groups: one group having fresh faces and another group having sad and scowling faces. Then, it reminds that human being chooses this world which is present and forgets about the hereafter and there, he will be chagrined. It also mentions that human being is a witness to himself and his actions, even though he brings excuses and denies it. At the end, it asks deniers if God who creates human being from mere non-existence to sperm and then to a clinging mass, cannot resurrect the dead.[4]

Content of Sura al-Qiyama[5]
 
 
Roots and causes of denying the day of Resurrection
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction: verses 1-2
Existence of the self-blaming soul in human being is a sign of the existence of the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First cause: verses 3-4
The wrong assumption about the impossibility of reconstruction of human body
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second cause: verses 5-13
Tendency to commit different kinds of sin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third cause: verses 14-19
Rejecting the reasons of the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth cause: verses 20-35
Loving this world and forgetting the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fifth cause: verses 36-40
The fallacy of incapability of God over resurrection of human beings


Famous Verses

According to hadiths, these verses were revealed when one of the neighbors of the Prophet (s) asked about the Day of Resurrection and asked about how God would gather the bones of the dead and [in the hereafter] recreate human being. The Qur'an answers to this denial that God not only recreates the bones but will even also recreate the tips of the fingers. It is said that these verses refer to fingerprint and identification of every person with it. Today, fingerprinting is considered completely scientific and scientists have proved that very few people may have similar fingerprints.[6]

It is mentioned in hadiths that the Prophet (s), due to his love for receiving and memorizing the Qur'an, repeated it hastily upon reception, so the above verses were revealed.[7] But, it is mentioned in another commentary that before finishing the revelation, the Prophet (s) recited it in advance and this shows that the Qur'an was previously revealed to the Prophet (s) all at once.[8] This question that only the concepts in the Qur'an are from God, not the actual words, the above verses are mentioned as arguments that "Qur'an-ah" (قرآنَه) means "its reading" and implies that the words of the Qur'an are from God, not anyone else.[9]

Merits and Benefits

About the merits and benefits of this sura, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s), that "whoever recites the Sura al-Qiyama, Gabriel and I will testify for him on the Day of Resurrection that he believed in that day and his face will be brighter than the others then."[10] Also, it is narrated from Imam al-Baqir (a) that whoever frequently recites Sura al-Qiyama and acts according to its verses, God will resurrect him the best way with the Prophet (s), while his face is happy until he will pass Sirat bridge and Mizan.[11]

In Tafsir al-Burhan, some benefits are mentioned for this sura such as increasing daily provision, security, popularity among people,[12] strengthening chastity and modesty[13] and also removing weakness and incompetence.[14]


Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1259-1260.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 166.
  3. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1259-1260.
  4. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1259-1260.
  5. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  6. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 277-279.
  7. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 25, p. 296.
  8. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 14, p. 300.
  9. Kārwarzī Waḥy Group, "Ilāhī budan-i alfāẓ-i Qurʾān", p. 35.
  10. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 190.
  11. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 121.
  12. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 553.
  13. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 5, p. 553.
  14. Kafʿamī, al-Miṣbāḥ, p. 459.

References

  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hashim al-. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Tehran: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1416 AH.
  • Kafʿamī, Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Miṣbāḥ. Qom: Muḥibbīn, 1423 AH.
  • Kārwarzī Waḥy Group. 1382 Sh. "Ilāhī budan-i alfāẓ-i Qurʾān." Majalla-yi Maʿrifat 73:30-38.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tenth edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1371 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. Tehran: Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Edited by Ṣādiq Ḥasanzāda. Tehran: Armaghān-i Ṭūbā, 1382 Sh.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Bāqir Mūsawī. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Translated to Farsi by Bīstūnī. Mashhad: Āstān-i Quds-i Raḍawī, 1390 Sh.