Sūra al-Shurā (Arabic: سورة الشورى) is forty second sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty five. The name of this sura is adopted from its verse thirty eight, where it is mentioned as one of the attributes of believers. The central topic in Sura al-Shura is revelation and it also discusses about other issues such as the Unity of God, the hereafter and the attributes of believers and disbelievers.
Verse twenty three of this sura is known as Al-Mawadda Verse. Verse thirty eight is also a famous verse of this sura about the importance of consultation. Verse forty of this sura has been referred to by jurists to prove the validity of qisas (commonly as "retaliation").
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Content
- 3 Occasion of Revelation for Some Verses
- 4 Famous Verses
- 5 Merits and Benefits
- 6 External Links
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
The name of this sura is adopted from its verse thirty eight. In this verse, consultation is considered as one of the practices of believers. This sura is also called "Ham-Mim ‘Ayn-Sin-Qaf" because of its first verse.
- Place and Order of Revelation
Sura al-Shura is a Makki sura. It was sixty second sura revealed to the Prophet (s) and forty second sura of the Qur'an now, located in juz' 25. It is said that it was revealed after Mi'raj (ascension) and little before immigration of the noble Prophet (s) to Medina. Some exegetes believe that verses twenty three to twenty six and verses thirty eight, thirty nine and forty of this sura were revealed in Medina.
- Number of Verses and Other Features
Sura al-Shura has fifty three verses, 860 words and 3521 letters. According to some reciters, this sura has fifty verses and according to some others, it has fifty six verses. This sura is among Ham-mimat or Hawamim suras or the Seven Hawamim. It is twenty third sura beginning with disjoined letters (al-huruf al-muqatta'a). Regarding volume, it is among Mathani suras, a little more than one hizb.
Central topic in Sura al-Shura is the issue of revelation. Some other topics mentioned in this sura are: advising the Prophet (s) to have steadfastness in preaching religion and inviting people toward God, unity of divine religions and prohibiting people from division and disunity in God's religion, forgiveness of others' slips and overcoming one's anger. In Sura al-Shura, also some other issues are mentioned such as the Unity of God, the hereafter, repentance and God's acceptance of repentance, enjoining people to consult and cooperation in the issues of the society and the government.
Occasion of Revelation for Some Verses
Love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a)
About the occasion of revelation of verse twenty three of Sura al-Shura: "Say, ‘I do not ask you any reward for it except the love of [my] relatives" it is transmitted from Ibn Abbas that when the Prophet (s) went to Medina, a series of events happened which led to the poverty of the Prophet (s); therefore, some of the Helpers collected some wealth and took it to the Prophet (s) and asked him to accept it. Then, the verse twenty three of Sura al-Shura was revealed and asked their love for the Prophet's (a) relatives instead of reward for his mission.
Abu l-Futuh al-Razi too quoted from Abu Qutada who considered the revelation of this verse an answer to the speech of the people of Mecca who said that the Prophet (s) wanted a reward for his mission.
Aspiration for Wealth in this World
According to the report of Khabbab b. Aratt, the revelation of verse twenty seven of Sura al-Shura: "Were Allah to expand the provision for [all] His servants, they would surely create havoc on the earth. But He sends down in a [precise] measure whatever He wishes. Indeed, He is all-aware, all-seeing about His servants" is about those who wished to have the wealth of Banu Nadir and Banu Qurayda and based on the quotation of Abu Uthman Mu'adhdhin from Amr b. Harith, this verse is about the companions of Suffa who wished to receive blessings and wealth in this world.
Revelation upon the Prophets (a)
Revelation of verse fifty one of Sura al-Shura: "It is not [possible] for any human that Allah should speak to him except through revelation or from behind a veil, or send a messenger who reveals by His permission whatever He wishes." is considered to have been taken place as an answer to Jews who considered their disbelief in the Prophet (s) due to him not seeing God. This verse considered speaking of humans with God only through revelation or from behind a veil, or by sending a messenger.
Verse of Mawadda
- Main article: Al-Mawadda Verse
|“||"Such is the good news that Allah gives to His servants who have faith and do righteous deeds! Say, ‘I do not ask you any reward for it except the love of [my] relatives.’ Whoever performs a good deed, We shall enhance its goodness for him. Indeed Allah is all-forgiving, all-appreciative"||”|
|— Qur'an, 42:23|
This verse considered the love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) as the reward of the Prophet (s). In the interpretation of this verse, Allama Tabataba'i mentioned that although it is emphasized several times in the Qur'an that he (s) did not ask any reward for his mission and considered people's acceptance of his call as the reward for his mission; in this verse, God assigned a reward for the Prophet's (s) mission and with regards to other verses as well, it can be deduced that asking for the reward in this verse, like other verses, is people's acceptance of the Prophet's (s) invitation along with his mission.
Verse of al-Shura
- Main article: Al-Shura Verse
|“||"those who answer their Lord, maintain the prayer, and [conduct] their affairs by counsel among themselves, and they spend out of what We have provided them"||”|
|— Qur'an, 42:38|
This verse mentions some of the attributes of believers such as establishing the prayer, consultation in their affairs and giving in the way of God among the examples of accepting the call of God. In a hadith from the Prophet (s), consultation is mentioned as a way for reaching goodness and growth.
Verses of Rulings
Verse forty of Sura al-Shura: "The requital of evil is an evil like it, so whoever excuses and conciliates, his reward lies with Allah" is considered among the verses of rulings. This verse is considered a proof of permission for retaliation and the forgiveness mentioned in this verse is considered only permissible when the oppressor repents for his wrongdoing; otherwise, forgiveness would rather cause his boldness.
Merits and Benefits
In a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), it is mentioned, "whoever recites Sura al-Shura, will be resurrected on the Day of Judgment with a bright and shining face like the sun to go before God, and then God says, ‘O my servant! You continued recitation of Sura Ham-Mim ‘Ayn-Sin-Qaf while you did not know its reward, but if you knew what reward it would have, you would never become tired of its recitation; but, today, I will give you the reward for it.’ Then, He orders to escort that person into the paradise and surround him with especial blessings of the paradise."About the benefits of this sura, it is transmitted that whoever writes this sura and keep it with himself, will be safe from the evils of people.
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Shura.|
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره شوری in Farsi WikiShia.