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The Verse of the Friday Prayer

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The Verse of the Friday prayer (Arabic: آیة صلاة الجمعة) is the verse nine of Qur'an 62 ordering people to attend the Friday prayer and abandon their businesses on Fridays. According to jurists, the verse implies that it is obligatory for Muslims to attend the Friday prayer and it is forbidden for them to do business on this day. According to Allama Tabataba'i, the context of the verse shows that it is forbidden to do anything that is in conflict with performing the Friday prayer.

The obligation of the Friday prayer and the prohibition of business at the time of the Friday prayer are restricted to times of the presence of the Infallible (a). The occasion of the revelation of the verse is said to be when Muslims held their first Friday prayer in Medina behind As'ad b. Zurara. The verse was allegedly revealed because only a few Muslims had attended the Friday prayer.


Text


Occasion of the Revelation

According to al-Tabrisi, the author of Majma' al-bayan, the verse of the Friday prayer was revealed after the first Friday prayer held by Muslims in Medina before the Prophet Muhammad (s)'s migration to the city.[1] On al-Tabrisi's account, since Muslims saw that the Jews and the Christians congregated and worshiped together once a week, they decided to have a day of the week for their congregations. On Friday, they gathered around As'ad b. Zurara, said the prayer behind him, and called that day "al-Jumu'a" (day of congregation). Since very few Muslims attended the Friday prayer, the verse of the Friday prayer was revealed, commanding Muslims to attend the prayer.[2]

Exegesis

According to Tafsir-i nimuna, the "call" in the verse refers to adhan, because the only call for prayer in Islam is adhan, as there is another verse of the Qur'an which says, "When you call to the prayer". The verse implies that when adhan is called at noon on Friday, Muslims are obligated to abandon their businesses and hasten to attend the Friday prayer.[3] According to al-Mizan, the verse implies the obligation of the Friday prayer and the prohibition of doing business at the time of the Friday prayer.[4] According to this book, the phrase, "leave all business", in the verse does not only prohibit trades and businesses. Instead, it prohibits everything that is in conflict with performing the Friday prayer, because the context of the verse implies that it is not allowed to do anything that prevents the performance of the Friday prayer.[5] The ruling is restricted to the times of the presence of the infallible (a) when the Friday prayer is individually obligatory (al-wajib al-'ayni).[6]

Friday prayer

Main article: Friday prayer

The Friday prayer is a prayer consisting of two rak'as, which is performed on Fridays in congregation, instead of the Noon prayer.[7] The Friday prayer involves two sermons (khutbas) delivered before the prayer.[8] Shiite jurists believe that the performance of the Friday prayer is individually obligatory during the presence of infallible (a),[9] but they disagree over its ruling during the Occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a).[10]

According to the majority of contemporary marja's, the Friday prayer is an Disjunctive obligation, that is, on Friday noon one can choose between the Friday prayer and the Noon prayer.[11]

Appeals to the Verse in Jurisprudential Books

In jurisprudential books, appeals are made to the Verse of the Friday prayer in cases such as the ruling of the Friday prayer, delivering the sermons after adhan, and the prohibition of doing business during the Friday prayer.[12] For example, al-Allama al-Hilli wrote, "The obligation of 'proceeding' [to the prayer] is after 'the call is made', which refers to adhan. This shows that the sermons of the Friday prayer should be delivered after the adhan."[13]

The Tradition of Reciting the Verse on Fridays

According to a hadith cited in Man la yahduruh al-faqih, it was a common practice in Medina to say out loud that the business is now forbidden and to recite the Verse of the Friday prayer after hearing the adhan.[14]

Notes

  1. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 431-432.
  2. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 431-432.
  3. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 24, p. 26.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 273.
  5. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 273.
  6. Surūsh, "Iqāma-yi namāz-i jumʿa dar dawlat-i Islāmī", p. 101.
  7. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 1062, 1063, 1068.
  8. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 1068.
  9. Surūsh, "Iqāma-yi namāz-i jumʿa dar dawlat-i Islāmī", p. 101.
  10. Surūsh, "Iqāma-yi namāz-i jumʿa dar dawlat-i Islāmī", p. 101.
  11. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 1062, 1064, 1079, 1083.
  12. Baḥrānī, al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāẓira, vol. 10, p. 172; Ṭūsī, al-Khilāf, vol. 1, p. 598.
  13. Ḥillī, Mukhtalaf al-Shīʿa, vol. 2, p. 213.
  14. Ṣadūq, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol. 1, p. 299.

References

  • Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥusayn Banī Hāshimī. Eighth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1405 AH.
  • Baḥrānī, Yūsuf b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Ḥadāʾiq al-nāẓira fī aḥkām al-ʿitra al-ṭāhira. Edited by Muḥammad Taqī Irawānī & Muqarram. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1405 AH.
  • Ḥillī, Ḥasan b. Yūsuf al-. Mukhtalaf al-Shīʿa fī aḥkām al-sharīʿa. second edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1405 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Second edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1413 AH.
  • Surūsh, Muḥammad. 1383 Sh. "Iqāma-yi namāz-i jumʿa dar dawlat-i Islāmī." Ḥukūmat-i Islāmī, 32:100-156.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Fifth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1417 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Third edition. Tehran: Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. al-Khilāf. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1407 AH.