Umm Kulthum bt. al-Imam 'Ali (a)
|Umm Kulthum bt. al-Imam 'Ali|
Daughter of Imam Ali (a)
Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus
|Full Name||Umm Kulthum bt. 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)|
|Well-known As||Umm Kulthum Kubra, Zaynab Sughra|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Well-known Relatives||Imam Ali (a), Lady Fatima (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Burial Place||Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus|
|Known for||Daughter of Imam Ali (a)|
|Activities||Present at the Battle of Karbala|
Umm Kulthūm Kubrā bt. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: اُمّ کُلثُوم کُبری بنت عَليّ بن اَبيطالِب بن عَبدالمُطَّلِب) is the fourth child of Imam 'Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (a), after Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) and Zaynab al-Kubra. According to historical sources, she married to 'Umar b. al-Khattab, the second Caliph. Some scholars believe that she attended in the Battle of Karbala and her sermons have been quoted in Maqtal books (narrative accounts of the Battle of Karbala). The ambiguity surrounding her character and denial or approval of some events happening to her is mostly because there were three or four women with the same name and kunya in the family of Imam 'Ali (a); Umm Kulthum Kubra who was the daughter of Lady Fatima (a), Umm Kulthum Wusta who was the wife of Muslim b. 'Aqil, Umm Kulthum Sughra (Nafisa), and Zaynab Sughra whose Kunya was Umm Kulthum.
Birth and lineage
It is recorded in the history that she was born in 6/627. Some historians believe that she was born at the time of the Prophet (s) or before he (s) passed away. Another disagreement between Shi'as and Sunnis is that Shi'a scholars believe that she was younger than Zaynab (a) while Sunnis believe that she was the third child of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and older than Zaynab (a).
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
Kunyas and Titles
Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has mentioned the names of Imam Ali's (a) children and introduced her as Zaynab Sughra whose kunya was Umm Kulthum. This Kunya was given to her by the Prophet (s) because of her similarity to her aunt, Umm Kulthum (the Prophet's (s) daughter). In many Shi'a and Sunni sources, she is called Umm Kulthum Kubra.
- Umm Kulthum Kubra, the daughter of Lady Fatima (a)
- Umm Kulthum Wusta, the wife of Muslim b. 'Aqil
- Umm Kulthum Sughra
- Zaynab Sughra whose kunya is Umm Kulthum
He continues that if two last ones be the same, so there were three Umm Kulthum, otherwise there were four. In some other sources, the name of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali (a) and Fatima (a) is mentioned as "Ruqayya Kubra" and the name of Umm Kulthum Sughra is mentioned as "Nafisa".
Husband and Children
According to the history, Umm Kulthum first married 'Umar b. al-Khattab. After his death, she married 'Uwn b. Ja'far b. Abi Talib, her cousin. When he passed away, she married his brother, Muhammad. After Muhammad's death, she married another brother of them, 'Abd al-Allah. Mas'udi believes that she had no children. Some others mention Zayd and Ruqayya as her children whose father was 'Umar. Ibn 'Inaba counts Hamida as the daughter of Muslim b. 'Aqil whose mother was Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a). Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin says, "It means that Muslim b. 'Aqil married his cousin, Umm Kulthum. But there is no evidence that he married Umm Kulthum Kubra, so he might has married Umm Kulthum Wusta."
Marriage to 'Umar b. al-Khattab
- Main article: Marriage of Umm Kulthum with 'Umar b. al-Khattab
According to historical and hadith references, and also Shi'a and Sunnite life story books, Umm Kulthum, the daughter of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), married 'Umar, the second Caliph. They married in Dhu al-Qa'da, 17/638.
Some Maqtal books (narrative accounts of the Battle of Karbala) have reported the attendance of Umm Kulthum in the Battle of Karbala. In these books, she has been frequently mentioned beside Zaynab (a) and her sufferings have been quoted. Majlisi says, "After Imam's martyrdom, when the tents were burned, the earrings of Umm Kulthum, Husayn's (a) sister, were taken out forcibly". She was a narrator of the Event of 'Ashura and preached a sermon in the meeting held by Ibn Ziyad in Kufa. In his book, Ibn Tayfur has quoted a sermon from Umm Kulthum which was delivered in Kufa when the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet (s) were held captive. Also 'Allama Majlisi has quoted poems and speeches of Umm Kulthum in the meeting held by Ibn Ziyad.
On the contrary, some other sources indicate that Umm Kulthum who attended the Battle of Karbala was not the daughter of Lady Fatima (a). Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin says, "Imam 'Ali (a) had two daughters called Umm Kulthum, one of them was Umm Kulthum Kubra, the daughter of Lady Fatima (a), who passed away before the Battle of Karbala, and the other one, whose mother was a handmaiden, attended the Battle of Karbala and delivered a sermon in Kufa. She was the wife of Muslim b. 'Aqil".
Narrator of Hadiths
Some hadiths have been quoted from Umm Kulthum in Shi'a sources. Mamaqani has counted her as a narrator of hadiths and says:
- "She was a great woman and I know her a reliable source".
Most of hadiths narrated by Umm Kulthum are about the sufferings of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s).
Martyrdom of Lady Fatimah (a)
When Lady Fatima (a) passed away, Umm Kulthum, wearing a veil and shedding tears, told the Prophet (s), "O father! O the Messenger of Allah! Indeed, the time now is like when you passed away! We will have no chance to visit our mother again".
Martyrdom of Imam 'Ali (a)
'Allama Majlisi writes:
- Umm Kulthum said, "At the night of 19 Ramadan, I prepared two loafs of barley bread, some milk, and some salt for my father to break the fasting. After saying prayers, he (a) attended the food spread. He (a) took one look at his food and cried loudly. He (a) then said, "… O my dear daughter! If you do not take one of these two foods, swear by God, I will eat nothing …." And he (a) ate a loaf of bread and some salt".
Al-Shaykh al-Mufid writes:
When Imam 'Ali (a) was martyred, she told Ibn Muljam while she was crying,
- "Woe on you! Allah abased you in this world and the hereafter and you will always remain in the everlasting fire of the hell".
Abd al-Karim b. Ahmad b. Tawus al-Hilli has quoted a hadith from al-Shaykh al-Saduq in which Umm Kultum talks about Imam Ali's (a) advice to his children and his funeral and burial ceremony. In one part of this hadith we read:
- … Umm Kulthum said, "At the burial ceremony, the grave was split. I do not know whether my lord (father) was buried in the ground or he (a) ascended to the sky. Suddenly, I heard a voice condoling with us and saying, "May God help you in mourning for the vicegerent and proof of God upon His creation".
Event of 'Ashura and the Succeeding Events
- Sayyid b. Tawus says:
- When the Ahl al-Bayt (a) were held captive and the people of Kufa brought food for children, Umm Kulthum cried out, "O people of Kufa! It is forbidden to give alms to the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet (s)".
- There is a tradition according to which when the caravan of captives entered Syria, Umm Kulthum wanted Shimr to move the heads of martyrs away so that people would be attracted to them and would look at the captives less.
There are different opinions concerning when and how Umm Kulthum passed away.
- According to many sources, her son, Zayd, and she passed away simultaneously and one prayer was recited on their bodies.
- Some scholars believe that they passed away about 50/670 at the time of Mu'awiya and government of Sa'id b. 'As.
- Some others believe that they passed away at the time of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan (73/692 - 86/705).
- Miqrizi writes that she passed away when she was the wife of 'Uwn b. Ja'far.
- Ibn 'Abd al-Barr believes that she passed away at the time of Imam al-Hasan (a).
- Ibn Tayfur believes that she passed away after 61/680 and the Battle of Karbala.
'Imad al-Din Tabari says,
In his travel book, Ibn Battuta has written,
Yaqut Hamawi writes,
Ibn 'Asakir says,
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 354; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 463; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 118.
- Dhahabī, Siyar iʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 3, p. 500.
- Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 464. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1954.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 354; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Vol. 3, p. 89.
- Dhahabī, Siyar iʿlām al-nubalāʾ, vol. 3, p. 500; Ibn Isḥāq, Sīra Ibn Isḥāq, p. 247.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 354.
- Qummī, al-Kunā wa l-alqāb, vol. 1, p. 228.
- Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 484.
- ʿAlawī, al-Mujdī, p. 17-18; Zubaydī, Tāj al-ʿarūs, vol. 15, p. 813.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 462.
- Masʿūdī, Murūj al-dhahab, vol. 1, p. 299.
- Bilādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, p. 190; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīna-yi Dimashq, vol. 19, p. 482.
- Ibn ʿInaba, Umdat al-ṭālib, p. 32.
- Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 484.
- Bilādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, p. 190; Kūlaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 346; Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 8, p. 161; Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 1, p. 397.
- Nuwayrī, Nihāyat al-arab, vol. 19, p. 347.
- Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 60.
- Ibn Ṭayfūr, Balāghāt al-nisāʾ, p. 23.
- Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 112-115.
- Birrī, al-Jawhara fī nisab al-imām ʿAlī, p. 45.
- Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 1, p. 327; vol. 3, p. 484.
- Māmaqānī, Tanqīḥ al-maqāl, vol. 3, p. 73.
- Niyshābūrī, Rawḍat al-wāʿiẓīn, p. 152.
- Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 42, p. 276-278.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 16.
- Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 42, p. 289.
- Ibn Ṭāwūs al-Ḥillī, Farḥat al-gharā, p. 63-64.
- Ibn Ṭāwūs, Luhūf, p. 82.
- Majlisī, Biḥar al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 114.
- Ibn Ṭāwūs, Luhūf, p. 174.
- Zubaydī, Tāj al-ʿarūs, vol. 15, p. 813.
- Amīn, Aʿyān al-Shīʿa, vol. 3, p. 485.
- Ṣanʿānī, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 6, p. 164.
- Maqrizī, Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ, vol. 5, p. 370.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1956.
- Ibn Ṭayfūr, Balāghāt al-nisāʾ, p. 23-24.
- Ibn Ḥabīb al-Baghdādī, al-Munammaq, p. 312.
- Ṣanʿānī, al-Muṣannaf, vol. 6, p. 164.
- Ṭabarī, Kāmil al-Bahāyī, vol. 2, p. 371.
- Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, al-Riḥla, vol. 1, p. 113.
- Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān, vol. 3, p. 20.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīna-yi Dimashq, vol. 2, p. 309.
- Bīṭār, Ḥilyat al-Bashar. Vol. 3, p. 1283.
- ʿAlawī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Mujdī fī ansāb al-ṭālibīyyīn. Qom: Maktabat al-Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1409 AH.
- Amīn, Sayyid Muḥsen al-. Aʿyān al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf, [n.d].
- Bilādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1420 AH.
- Birrī, Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr al-. Al-Jawhara fī nisab al-imām ʿAlī wa Ālih. Damascus: Maktabat al-Nūrī, 1402 AH.
- Bīṭār, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-. Ḥilyat al-Bashar fī tārīkh al-qarn al-thālith ʿashar. Edited by Muḥammad Bahja al-Bīṭār. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1413 AH.
- Dhahabī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-. Siyar iʿlām al-nubalāʾ. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, 1413 AH.
- Ḥamawī, Yāqūt b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Muʿjam al-buldān. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1399 AH.
- Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣhāb. Beirut: Dār al-Jail, 1412 AH.
- Ibn al-Baṭṭuṭa, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Riḥla. Beirut: Edited by ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī. Rabat: Ākādimīyya al-Mamlikat al-Maghribīyya, 1417 AH.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīna Dimashq. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415.
- Ibn Ḥabīb al-Baghdādī. Al-Munammaq fī akhbār Quraysh. Edited by Aḥmad al-Fārūq. Beirut: ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1415 AH.
- Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Beiut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1415 AH.
- Ibn ʿInaba, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Umdat al-ṭālib fī ansāb Āl Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1380 AH.
- Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad. Sīrat Ibn Isḥāq. Qom: Daftar-i Tārīkh wa Muṭāliʿāt-i Islāmī, 1410 AH.
- Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, [n.d].
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Ḥitdarīyya, 1376 AH.
- Ibn Ṭāwūs al-Ḥillī, 'Abd al-Karim b. Aḥmad. Farḥat al-gharā fī taʿyīn qabr Amīr al-Muʾminīn ʿAlī (a). Edited by Sayyid Taḥsīn Al Shabīb al-Musawī. [n.p]: Markaz al-Ghadīr, [n.d].
- Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Musā. Luhūf. Tehran: Nashr-i Jahān, 1348 Sh.
- Ibn Ṭayfūr, Abū l-Faḍl b. Abī Ṭāhir. Balāghāt al-nisāʾ. Qom: Maktabat al-Baṣīratī, 1372 Sh.
- Kūlaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb l-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar al-Ghaffārī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1363 Sh.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403.
- Mamaqānī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad. Tanqīḥ al-maqāl fī ʿilm al-rijāl. Najaf: [n.p], 1352 AH.
- Maqrizī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Imtāʿ al-asmāʾ. Edited by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Namīsī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub, 1420 AH.
- Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿādin al-jawāhir. Edited by Yūsuf Asʿad al-Dāghir. Qom: Muʾassisat Dār al-Hijra, 1409 AH.
- Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Beirut: Dār al-Mufīd, 1414 AH.
- Niyshābūrī, Muḥammad b. al-Fattāl. Rawḍāt al-wāʿiẓīn. Qom: al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1368 AH.
- Nuwayrī, Shahāb al-Dīn Aḥmad al-. Nihāyat al-arab fī funūn al-adab. Cairo: Dār al-Kutub wa l-Withāʾiq al-Qawmīyya, 1423 AH.
- Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās al-. Al-Kunā wa l-alqāb. Tehran: Maktabat al-Ṣadr, [n.d].
- Ṣanʿānī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-. Al-Muṣannaf. Edited by Saykh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aʿẓamī. [n.p]: al-Majlis al-ʿilmī, [n.d].
- Tabari, ʿImād al-Dīn al-. Kāmil al-Bahāʾi. Qom: al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, [n.d].
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: Muʾssisat al-Aʿlamī, 1403 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al. Iʿlām al-warā bi-iʿlām al-hudā. Qom: Āl al-Bayt, 1417 AH.
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1364 Sh.
- Zubaydī, Muḥammad Murtaḍā b. Muḥammad al-. Tāj al-ʿarūs min jawāhir al-qāmūs. Beiut: Dār al-Fikr, 1414 AH.