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Umm Kulthum Daughter of Prophet Muhammad (s)

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For other people named Umm Kulthum, see Umm Kulthum (disambiguation).

Umm Kulthūm bt. Muḥammad (s) (Arabic:اُمّ کُلثُوم بنت محمد) (d. Sha'ban 9/630) was the third daughter of the Holy Prophet (s) and Lady Khadija (a). She married 'Utayba b. Abu Lahab before Bi'tha and when the Sura al-Masad was revealed cursing Abu Lahab and his wife, 'Utayba divorced her by the order of his father. After the Battle of Badr, Umm Kulthum married to 'Uthman. She passed away in 9/630 and was buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.

Some Shia researchers including al-Sayyid Ja'far Murtada al-'Amili have considered Umm Kulthum, Zaynab and Ruqayya stepdaughters of the Prophet (s), not his children.

Before Bi'tha

Umm Kulthum has been mentioned as the second or the third daughter of the Prophet (s) and lady Khadija (a).[1] Before Bi'tha, she married to 'Utayba b. Abu Lahab.[2] When the Sura al-Masad was revealed and cursed Abu Lahab and his wife, 'Utayba divorced Umm Kulthum following the request of the chiefs of Quraysh including his father and married the daughter of Sa'id b. al-'As.[3]

Marriage with 'Uthman

Umm Kulthum emigrated to Medina with her father, the Prophet (s). When her elder sister, Ruqayya passed away, Umm Kulthum married to 'Uthman.[4] Their marriage took place in Rabi' I 3/624 after the Battle of Badr. 'Uthman had no children of her.[5]

Some Shia researchers including al-Sayyid Ja'far Murtada al-'Amili have considered Umm Kulthum, Zaynab and Ruqayya stepdaughters of the Prophet (s), not his children.[6]

Demise

Umm Kulthum passed away in Sha'ban 9/630[7] and the Prophet (s) prayed upon her body. Asma' bt. 'Umays and Safiyya bt. 'Abd al-Muttalib performed her ghusl and Imam Ali (a), al-Fadl, Usama b. Zayd, and Abu Talha al-Ansari put her into the grave and buried her. Umm 'Atiyya al-Ansari was witness to her ghusl.[8] However according to Ibn Athir, Umm 'Atiyya performed her ghusl.[9]

Grave

The tomb attributed to the burial place of the daughters of the Prophet (s), Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum and Zaynab in al-Baqi' cemetery was among the tombs located north of the graves of Imams (a) and south-west of the graves of the wives of the Prophet (s), near the grave of 'Uthman b. Maz'un.

Different sources report the burial of Ruqayya[10] and Zaynab[11] in al-Baqi' cemetery near the grave of 'Uthman b. Maz'un, following the advice of the Prophet (s). However, there is no report about the burial location of Umm Kulthum. Only later writers including Farhad Mirza[12] and Raf'at Pasha[13] have mentioned that Umm Kulthum is buried beside other daughters of the Prophet (s) and have also referred to the tomb built over their graves. In the past, there was a brazen darih over their graves.[14] Wahhabis destroyed this tomb.

Notes

  1. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 50; vol. 4, p. 1818; vol. 4, p. 1952.
  2. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1952.
  3. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 384.
  4. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 2, p. 1039; vol. 4, p. 1952.
  5. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 50; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 11, p. 595.
  6. ʿĀmilī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabīyy, vol. 2, p. 216.
  7. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 460.
  8. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1952-1953; Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 460.
  9. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 384.
  10. Ibn Shubba, Tārīkh al-Medina, vol. 1, p. 103; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 37.
  11. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1056; Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 237.
  12. Farhād Mīrzā, Safarnāma-yi Farhād Mīrzā, p. 156.
  13. Rafʿat Pāshā, Mirʾāt al-ḥaramayn, p. 478.
  14. Jaʿfarīyān, Panjāh safarnāma-yi Ḥaj, vol. 5, p. 241.

References

  • ʿĀmilī, Sayyid Jaʿfar Murtaḍā al-. Al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabīyy al-aʿẓam. Qom: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1426 AH.
  • Farhād Mīrzā Qājār. Safarnāma-yi Farhād Mīrzā. Edited by Ṭabāṭabāyī, Tehran: Muʾassisa-yi Maṭbūʿātī-yi ʿIlmī, 1366 Sh.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jail, 1412 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Edited by ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd & ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Muʿawwaḍ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1415 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥanbal, Aḥmad. Musnad Aḥmad. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, [n.d].
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by ʿAbd al-Qadir ʿAṭā. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1418 AH.
  • Ibn Shubba. Tārīkh al-Medina al-munawwara. Edited by Shaltūt, Qom: Dār al-Fikr, 1410 AH.
  • Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Panjāh safarnāma-yi Ḥaj-i qājārī. Tehran: Nashr-i ʿIlm, 1389 Sh.
  • Rafʿat Pāshā, Ibrāhīm. Mirʾāt al-ḥaramayn. Qom: al-Maṭbaʿa al-ʿIlmīyya, 1344 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Turāth, 1387 AH.