Usayd b. Hudayr b. Simak
|Usayd b. Hudayr b. Simak|
|Full Name||Usayd b. Hudayr b. Simak|
|Teknonym||Abu Yahya, Abu Hudayr|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina|
|Burial Place||Al-Baqi' cemetery|
|Presence at Ghazwas||Uhud• Hunayn• Tabuk, ...|
|Notable Roles||Head of Aws tribe|
|Other Activities||Supporting the calipahte of Abu Bakr in Saqifa|
Abū Yaḥyā Usayd b. Huḍayr b. Simāk (Arabic: أبويحیی اُسَيد بْن حُضَير بن سِماک) (d. 20/641) was a grand figure of Aws tribe, a companion of prophet Muhammad (s) and he was chosen as one of the twelve naqibs (deputy) in the second pledge of al-'Aqaba. After the demise of the Prophet (s), he supported Muhajirun in the Saqifa Bani Sa'ida and he played a crucial role in assigning Abu Bakr as the caliph of Muslims. He passed away in 20/641 and is buried in al-Baqi' cemetery.
Name and Lineage
Abu Hudayr, Abu Yahya and some others are mentioned as the kunya of Usayd. His father, Hudayr al-Kata'ib was the leader of Aws tribe in Jahiliyya era and the leader of his tribe in the Battle of Bu'ath against Khazraj, in which he was killed.
After his father, Usayd was regarded as the leader and the most knowledgeable man of his tribe in Jahiliyya and early Islam era. He was a literate man who mastered in archery and swimming. As a result he was regarded as a complete man like his father.
Convertion to Islam
Usayd converted to Islam two years before the migration to Medina through Mus'ab b. 'Umayr, the representative of Prophet Muhammad (s). He attended the second pledge of al-'Aqaba and took an oath of allegiance to the Prophet (s), then he was chosen as the Naqib (deputy) of his tribe, Aws. After the migration, the Prophet (s) made a brotherhood bond between Usayd and Zayd b. Haritha.
Based on some reports, Usayd was not present in the Battle of Badr, but he attended the rest of the battles (Ghazwas and some Sariyyas) in the time of the Prophet (s). Some historians mentioned that Usayd was given the flag of Aws in the Battle of Uhud by the Prophet (s), and he was among those who did not leave the Prophet (s) till the end of the battle. He also carried the flag of his tribe in the Battle of Hunayn and the Battle of Tabuk.
In the Battle of Ta'if, the Prophet (s) told Usayd to teach the Qur'an and religious rules to Ibrahim b. Jabir, who was a slave in al-Ta'if but joined Muslims and then was freed. Usayd was among the grand companions of Prophet (s) who attended the Sariyya of Usama b. Zayd and followed his orders.
Presence in Saqifa
- Main article: Saqifa
After the demise of Prophet Muhammad (s), Usayd attended Saqifa and supported Muhajirun. In Khazraj's view, he was the first one from Ansar who took an oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr and motivated Aws tribe to do the same as well, which resulted from the jealousy between Usayd and Sa'd b. 'Ubada, the leader of Khazraj tribe. He accompanied 'Umar b. al-Khattab to convince Ali b. Abi Talib (a) to take an oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr.
Usayd played a crucial role in the process of choosing Abu Bakr as the Caliph of Muslims by accompanying Muhajirun in taking oaths of allegiance to Abu Bakr.
There is not enough information on the presence of Usayd in the conquests of Muslims. However according to Ibn 'Asakir, Usayd accompanied 'Umar b. al-Khattab in Jabiya and the conquest of Bayt al-Maqdis. It is also said he was in charge of the region where Ansar were living.
Usayd has narrated hadiths from the Prophet (s), and a number of narrators have narrated hadiths from him including: 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Layla, Aisha and Ibn 'Umar, Anas b. Malik, 'Ikrima b. Khalid, Zayd b. Aslam, Abu Sa'id al-Khudri, Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. al-Harith, Ka'b b. Malik and a number of other narrators.
Shi'ite and Sunni Views
Sunni historians have praised Usayd for his reasoning and rational thinking as well as the significant way he recited the Qur'an. However Shi'ite scholars have disapproved of him which is mainly resulted from his decision to oppose Ali b. Abi Talib (a) in Saqifa. Based on another narration he was among those who tried to set fire on Lady Fatima's (a) house.
According to Ibn Sa'd, Usayd passed away in Sha'ban, 20/641. Then 'Umar b. al-Khattab performed the Funeral prayer on his body and buried him in al-Baqi' cemetery. But Khalifa b. Khayyat stated that 'Usayd passed away in 21/642.
- The material for writing this article is mainly taken from اسید بن حضیر بن سماک in Farsi WikiShia.