Waqa'i' al-sinin wa l-a'wam (book)
|Waqa'i' al-sinin wa l-a'wam (book)|
|Author||Sayyid Abd al-Husayn Khatun Abadi|
|Original title||وَقایعُ السِّنینِ وَ الْاَعْوام|
Waqā'i' al-sinīn wa l-a'wām (Arabic: وَقایعُ السِّنینِ وَ الْاَعْوام) (lit: events of years) or Guzārish-hā-yi sālīyāna az tārīkh-i khilqat tā sāl-i 1195 hijrī (Persian: گزارشهای سالیانه از تاریخ خلقت تا سال ۱۱۹۵ هجری) (lit: annual reports from the date of creation to 1195/1780) is a historical book in Persian written by Sayyid Abd al-Husayn Khatun Abadi (d. 1105/1693). He provides a chronological account of historical events and biographies of prominent figures of Islam from the beginning of the creation to 1195/1780.
- Main article: Sayyid Abd al-Husayn Husayni Khatun Abadi
Sayyid Abd al-Husayn Husayni Khatun Abadi was a scholar of Isfahan in the Safavid era. He was born in the village of Khatun Abad near Isfahan in 1039/1629, and died in 1105/1693. Khatun Abadi was a student of Muhaqqiq Sabziwari and Mirza Rafi' Na'ini. His mausoleum is in Takht-i Fulad in Isfahan near the mausoleum of Baba Rukn al-Din.
The Title of the Book
The book is best known as "Waqa'i' al-sinin wa l-a'wam" which appears on its cover as well. However, in his al-Dhari'a, Aqa Buzurg Tihrani refers to the book as "Waqa'i' al-ayyam wa l-sinin wa l-a'wam". Another title that appears on the book's cover is "Guzarish-ha-yi saliyana az tarikh-i khilqat ta sal-i 1195 hijri" (annual reports since the date of the creation to 1195/1780) although the last event reported in the book dates back to the end of 1193/1779.
Waqa'i' al-sinin wa l-a'wam is a brief historical collection concerning historical events in Islamic countries as well as prominent Islamic figures. The book is written in three "maqsad"s (destinations), most of which was written by the author until the last year of his life, that is, 1105/1693, and then his predecessors added later events to the book until 1193/1779.
The Three Destinations or Sections
- History of prophets (a): names, ages, and some life stories of some prophets (a), such as Adam (a), Idris (a), Noah (a), Shem (a), Abraham (a), Jacob (a), Joseph (a), Moses (a), Joshua (a), Jonah (a), Jesus (a), and so on.
- History of kings: names and histories of kings from the period of Adam (a) to the eighth year of the kingdom of Khosrow I (Anushiruwan), which is structured in four chapters: feudal kings, the fourth class of Ajam kings, kings of Rome, and classes of kings of Fars.
The second destination: historical events of the period of the Prophet (s) in three parts:
- From the Prophet's (s) birth to his Bi'that: his lineage, how he was born, and events of his life,, such as the death of his mother when he was five years old, the death of Khosrow I when he was eight, his meeting with Bahira the Christian monk when he was nine, his Bi'that (beginning of his prophethood) when he was forty, and so on.
- From Bi'that to Hijra: the Prophet's (s) mi'raj, the death of lady Khadija (a) and Abu Talib, and the migration of a group of Muslims to Abyssinia.
- Since the migration from Mecca to Muharram 1 of 11/March 29, 632: the marriage of Imam Ali (a) and lady Fatima (a), the birth of Hasanayn (a), the Prophet's (s) Ghazwas (battles), including the battles of Badr, Uhud, Dhat al-Riqa', and Khandaq, the Prophet's (s) marriage with Umm Salama, the Conquest of Mecca, the death of Umm Kulthum, and the Farewell Hajj (Hajjat al-Wada').
The third destination: historical events from the first year of Hijra to 1099 in eleven chapters:
- From Muharram 1 of 11/March 29, 632 to 100/718: this includes events such as the demise of the Prophet (s), the Event of Saqifa Bani Sa'ida, the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the Conquest of Damascus and Persia, the six-member council for the selection of the Third caliph, the development of al-Masjid al-Haram at the command of the Third Caliph, the conquest of Africa by Muslims.
- From 11/632 to 200/815: the death of the Umayyad ruler Abd al-Aziz, the uprising of Abu Muslim al-Khurasani, the deaths of Humam b. Ghalib (Al-Farazdaq) and Abu Nuwas, and the martyrdom of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (a).
- From 200/815 to 300/912: the death of Qadi Abu l-Bakhtari Wahab b. Wahab, the battle between Ma'mun and Amin al-Abbasi, the riot of Babak Khurramdin in Azerbaijan against Ma'mun, the riot of Maziyar in Tabaristan.
- From 300/912 to 400/1009: the rule of Samanids in Iran and Ahmad b. Isma'il's opposition against them, the disruption of the Abbasid rule, the death of Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari.
- From 400/1009 to 500/1106: Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Abu Nasr al-Iraqi, Abu Ali Sina, al-Sayyid al-Murtada, al-Sayyid al-Radi, Husayn b. Ahmad b. al-Mughira Bushanji, and Abu Abd Allah b. Hamri Shaykh Salih, who lived in this period.
- From 500/1106 to 600/1203: Shaykh Farid al-Din al-Attar and Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, scholars of the period, and Mahmud b. Muhammad b. Maliksha who became a king in Iraq in this period.
- From 600/1203 to 700/1300: in this period, Seljuk, Khwarazmian, and Ghaznawi dynasties took over the sultanate in Iran. In this period, the Moguls invaded Iran.
- From 700/1300 to 800/1397: the events reported in this period are mostly concerned with Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda's birth, life, sultanate, conversion to Shiism, and death.
- From 1000/1591 to Eid al-Fitr of 1099/1688: the construction of Naqsh-i Jahan in Isfahan, the rule of Allah Wirdi Khan and his son Imam Quli Khan in Shiraz, the death of Akbar Shah the king of India, the Georgian War, and the murder of Qarachaghay Khan.
- From 1100/1688 to 1193/1779: the death of Shaykh Ali Khan I'timad al-Dawla the prime minister of Shah Sulayman al-Safawi, Pasand Khan the ruler of Astar Abad, and Shah Safi, the installation of a darih in the Shrine of Kazimayn, the repair of the Shrine of Karbala, the assignment of the rule of Herat to Safi Quli Khan, the conquest of Isfahan and the fall of Safavids by Mahmud Afghan.
The Author's Method
Khatun Abadi consulted numerous sources to document his remarks. He cites his references with symbols. Thus, he only focuses on events the exact months and years of which are mentioned by historians. For example, he particularly focuses on Muruj al-dhahab, because in this book, al-Mas'udi mentions exact months and years of events. He reports events he witnessed in person with exact months and years.
Manuscripts and Prints
- The material for this article is mainly taken وقایع السنین و الاعوام (کتاب) from in Farsi WikiShia.