ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب) (b. 23BH/599 - d. 40AH/661) is considered to be the first Imam of all Shi'a sects and the fourth caliph of the rightly guided caliphs in the Sunni school of thought. He was also one of the scribes of the Qur'an. According to Shi'a historians and many Sunni scholars, he was born inside the Ka'aba. Further, he was the first one to believe in the prophethood of the Prophet (s) and would worship God with the Prophet (s), seven years before anyone else would do so. According to Shi'a beliefs, 'Ali (a) was the divinely-decreed successor of the Prophet (s), and the Prophet's (s) had explicitly designated him as such. A few verses of the Qur'an also indicate his infallibility and purity. In fact, roughly 300 verses of the Qur'an were revealed with regards to his virtues. He was the husband of Fatima (a), and the father of the rest of the Shi'a Imams. When the Quraysh plotted to assassinate the Prophet (s), it was 'Ali (a) who slept in the Prophet's (s) bed while he secretly left for Medina. In the pact of brotherhood in Medina, the Prophet (s) took 'Ali (a) as his brother. Except for the Battle of Tabuk where he stayed in Medina as the Prophet had ordered, 'Ali (a) participated in all battles alongside the Prophet (s) and was the most honorable commander of the Muslims. At the early morning of Ramadan 19, 40 (January 29, 661) when he was praying at the altar of Kufa Mosque, 'Ali (a) was struck with a sword by Ibn Muljam al-Muaradi and war martyred three days later in Ramadan 21.