Holy Shrine of Lady Zaynab (a)
- This article is about Holy Shrine of Lady Zaynab (Syria). For other sites known as Shrine of Lady Zaynab , see Maqam of Lady Zaynab (a).
The holy shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) is one of the places said to be the burial places for Lady Zaynab (a), daughter of Imam Ali (a), located in south of Damascus in Syria. This place is among pilgrimage cites for Shia. The area in which the shrine of Lady Zaynab (s) is located has been a village called Rawiya. Now, this area is called al-Sayyida Zaynab town and known to Iranians as "Zaynabiyya".
The shrine of Lady Zaynab (s) has been several times reconstructed and expanded during history. Since 2012, after the crisis worsened in Syria and Takfiri terrorists emerged in this country, this holy shrine was attacked by mortars and suicide bombings several times and some parts of the shrine were destroyed. Following these attacks, different groups of people went to Syria to defend the shrines of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). These groups known as "Mudafi'an-i Haram" (defenders of the shrine) have so far (2016) prevented terrorist groups attack the holy shrine of Lady Zaynab (s).
History of the Shrine
According to researches, there is no source available until 5th/11th century to show that there was a tomb or dome built upon the burial place of Lady Zaynab (a). Only one source in 2nd/8th century refers to the existence of a pilgrimage cite at the current location. According to the report of a woman related to Alawi families called Sayyida Nafisa bt. Hasan al-Anwar, a descendant of Imam Ali (a); in 193/808-9, she visited the pilgrimage cite for Lady Zaynab (a) in Rawiya of Damascus. After this date, there is another report in 500/1106-7 which mentions that a person from Aleppo built a mosque at the pilgrimage cite for Lady Zaynab (a) in that year.
However, after 7th/13th century, a shrine and dome have been built at this location. Also, when Ibn Jubayr (d. 614/1217-8), the famous tourist of the Islamic world, travelled to Damascus, he passed by Rawiya region and the current location of the shrine. In his report, he mentioned that the shrine belonged to Umm Kulthum, daughter of Imam Ali (a). However, there is a possibility that Ibn Jubayr meant the second daughter of Imam Ali (a) which is Zaynab al-Sughra, not Lady Zaynab (s) who is Zaynab al-Kubra.
In his report, Ibn Jubayr mentions the existence of the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) in the village of Rawiya, about 6 kilometers (a parasang) away from Damascus and says, "a large mosque is built there and there are houses outside it. There are also dedicated lands around it. People know these regions as the grave of Umm Kulthum." He finally mentions that he stayed there and visited the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a). Abu Bakr al-Hirawi (d. 611/1214-5) also visited the shrine of Lady Zaynab (s) and has a report about it.
Its Locations and Description
The holy shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) is located in the south of Damascus, in a region called al-Sayyida Zaynab (a). This region is part of Reef Damascus province. The building of shrine includes a great courtyard with square area and the tomb is located at its center, which has a dome and two tall minarets. The minarets and walls of the courtyard and inside areas are tiled by Iranian tile-work artists.
The ceiling and inside of the walls of the shrine have mirror works. The dome is gold plated.
In the area of the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) and the cemeteries around it, some Shia scholars and famous people are buried. For example, in the entrance corridor to the west courtyard, the graves of Sayyid Muhsin Amin al-'Amili and Sayyid Husayn Makki al-'Amili, the two Shia schoalrs from Syria are located. In the cemetery at the north of the shrine, the grave of Dr. Ali Shari'ati is there. Also, in another cemetery in the south of the shrine, the grave of Sayyid Mustafa Jamal al-Din, the contemporary Iraqi poet is located.
Takfiri Terrorist Attacks
With the beginning of crisis in Syria and increasing actions of Takfiri terrorist groups in this country after 2012, the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) was many times hit by these groups' mortar and suicide attacks. Terrorist attacks from 2012 to 2015 led to damages to some parts of the shrine including the dome, courtyard and main gates of the shrine. Some of these attacks happened in surroundings of the shrine which led to martyrdom of some visitors and residents around the shrine.
"Mudafi'an-i Haram" ("Defenders of the Shrine")
- Main article: Mudafi'an-i Haram
After great distribution of Takfiri terrorists in Syria and taking different regions of the country, many pilgrimage cites in regions under their control were demolished by their agents. Meanwhile, the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) was several times hit by Takfiri terrorists' mortar and suicide attacks. Takfiri terrorists several times advanced near the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a), but they moved back after encountering the resistance of Shia and residents of the region.
Following Takfiri terrorists' threat to demolish the shrines of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and especially the shrine of Lady Zaynab, many groups of Shia from other countries, especially Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Afghanistan went to Syria in order to defend the shrines of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and pilgrimage cites. Also, different groups from Iran went to Syria to defend the shrine, among which there were also military counselors as well.
Expansion and Reconstruction
- According to reports, the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) was first expanded and reconstructed in 768/1366-7 by Sayyid Husayn b. Musa Musawi Husayni who was one of the Sayyids and noble ones in Damascus and the forefather of Al Murtada in Syria.
- In 1302/1884-5, the shrine was rebuilt and expanded by Sultan 'Abd al-'Aziz Khan 'Uthmani and the helps of traders.
- In 1354/1935-6, Sayyids of Al Nizam reconstructed the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a) and for the comfort of its visitors, expanded it.
- Expansion of the shrine in 1370/1950 was made by Allama al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin and with the helps of traders. At that time, the old building was destroyed and the new building was made so that the courtyard and the interior areas could be expanded.
- The expansion of the Shrine of Lady Zaynab continued in 15th/21st century by the construction of the Musalla (Prayer Hall) of Zaynabiyya. It was made by Sayyid Ahmad Fihri Zanjani, the representative of Iran's Supreme Leader. After building Musalla in the shrine, performing congregational prayer, reciting Kumayl Supplication and performing the Friday prayer are made there. Recently, a new courtyard has also been built in the north of the shrine.
- Reconstruction of the shrine after the attacks of Takfiri terrorist groups: following the increase of Takfiri terrorist groups' mortar and suicide attacks to the shrine of Lady Zaynab (a), some parts of the dome, courtyards and the doors were damaged. Therefore, the committee for reconstruction of Great Shrines consider the plan of repairing and reconstructing the dome and doors of the shrine which had more damages. Thus, the damaged spots were repaired using the golds people of Khuzestan province had donated.
- The material for this article was mainly taken from حرم حضرت زینب س in Farsi WikiShia.