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Ziyara-text

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Ziyara-texts (Arabic: نصوص الزيارة; literally: texts for pilgrimage) is a text recited when visiting the holy shrine of an Infallible (a), an progeny of Imams or some prominent religious figures. The text is in the form of a supplication involving tributes to the person buried in the shrine or the mausoleum. Ziyara-texts which are transmitted from the Infallible Imams (a) count as sources of Shiite teachings.

Notion

Ziyara is a kind of worship consisting in the visiting of religious leaders or their graves or a sacred place to show one's respect and gain some spiritual achievements. While visiting the graves of the Infallibles (a), Imamzadas and other religious figures, a text is recited which is called "ziyara-text" or "visitation supplication".

Transmitted and Non-Transmitted

If the chain of the transmission of a ziyara-text traces back to one of the Infallibles (a), such as Ziyara Amin Allah, al-Jami'a al-Kabira, Ziyara al-Warith, Ziyarat al-Arba'in,[1] it counts as a transmitted (ma'thūra) ziyara-text. Otherwise, it is called non-transmitted.

Time and Place

The recitation of some ziyara-texts is restricted to particular times. For example, Ziyarat al-Arba'in, which is a visitation supplication of Imam al-Husayn (a), should only be recited on Arba'in.[2] Other ziyara-texts, such as Ziyara 'Ashura, are not restricted to a specific time and could be recited from distance. There are some ziyara-texts which are specific to particular times and places, but they can be recited in every time and place. One such example is Ziyara Amin Allah, which is a visitation supplication of Imam 'Ali (a) on Eid al-Ghadir, but it can be recited when visiting the graves of any Imam (a).[3]

Some ziyara-texts which are transmitted from the Infallibles are specific to some Imams (a), and others are common and can be recited when visiting any Imams (a), such as al-Ziyara al-Jami'a al-Kabira.[4]

Contents

ziyara-texts transmitted from the Infallibles (a) count as sources of true Islamic teachings. They usually contain doctrines concerning God, prophets, and Imams.[5]

ziyara-texts usually begin with sending regards and peace to the person buried in the grave and other religious leaders.[6] They point to the position of the visited person and to notions such as love of Ahl al-Bayt (a), friendship with them, obedience, intercession, tawassul, loyalty, call, surrender, testimony, enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong, jihad, tawalli, tabarri, and cursing the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (a).[7]

Ziyara-texts received from Imams (a) are two types; some are special to one Imam (a) and some are common and they can be recited upon visiting every Imam (a). Some issues can be found common in all or most of ziyara-texts:

  • Teaching divine and religious teachings: In ziyara-texts, God and His attributes are correctly introduced; also the Wilaya of the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) are explained and this is a kind of teaching correct beliefs and teachings to Shi'a.
  • There are points teaching the visitor what to say, what to ask and how.
  1. Saying that, "I have sought refuge before you from the burden of my sins"
  2. Wishing the company of Imam (a)
  3. Making Du'a to benefit from intercession of Imam (a)
  • Explaining virtues and vices: In ziyara-texts, the principles of correct decision-making are mentioned as virtue (in describing Imams (a)) and vices (in describing the enemies of Imams (a)) so that the right path is known from the wrong path. Some of such values are mentioned below:
  1. Establishing prayer; "I attest that you have established prayer"
  2. Zakat; "I attest that you have given Zakat"
  3. Enjoining to the good and forbidding the evil; "I attest that you have enjoined to the good and have forbidden the evil"
  4. Making Jihad on the way of God; "I attest that you have made Jihad"
  5. Following the conduct of the Prophet (s); "you have followed the conducts of your prophet"
  6. Inviting to God; "Peace be with the inviters to God"
  • Some vices mentioned in the ziyara 'Ashura are:
  1. Oppressing the Ahl al-Bayt (a); helping those who oppressed the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and even being satisfied with making oppression towards the Ahl al-Bayt (a)
  2. Accompanying and associating with the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt (a)

Books

The importance of ziyara and great range of its manners has made the discussion of ziyara-text as an important religious issue, to be the subject for many works.[8] Ibn Qulawayh al-Qummi's Kamil al-Ziyarat is among the most authentic such references. Other such works are al-Shaykh al-Mufid's al-Mazar, al-Shaykh al-Tusi's Misbah al-mutahajjid, Sayyid b. Tawus's Muhaj al-da'awat, Ibn al-Mashhadi's al-Mazar al-kabir, al-Allama al-Majlisi's Tuhfat al-za'ir and Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi's Mafatih al-jinan.

The following books are sources of ziyara-texts:

Notes

  1. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb, vol. 6, p. 113.
  2. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 642.
  3. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 487.
  4. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 724.
  5. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 742-752.
  6. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb, vol. 6, p. 113.
  7. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb, vol. 6, p. 113.
  8. See: Āqā Buzurg, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 12, p. 77-80.
  9. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 420-777.

References

  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Tahdhīb al-aḥkām. Edited by Musawī Khursān. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Mafātīḥ al-jinān. Qom: Mashʿar, 1387 Sh.