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Banu Nadir

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Banū Naḍīr (Arabic: بنو نضیر) is a Jewish tribe that resided in Medina until the early years of Hijra. They resided in Yathrib (or Medina) before the emergence of Islam.

After the Prophet Muhammad (s)'s immigration to Medina, like other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir made a compromise treaty with Muslims, promising to help them defend Medina in the case of any attacks, refusing to provide financial and life supports for the polytheists of Quraysh as well as commercial relations with them. But since Banu Nadir breached the treaty, the Prophet (s) launched a battle against them known as the Battle of Banu Nadir.

Origin

The Banu Nadir tribe resided in Yathrib before the emergence of Islam. There are different accounts of their origin. According to al-Ya'qubi, they were a clan of the Judham tribe who converted to Judaism and resided in the mountain of Nadir; and this is why they are called Banu Nadir.

According to another account, they were from the progeny of Harun b. 'Imran (Aaron, the brother of the prophet Moses), who had immigrated to, and resided in, Yathrib after the demise of the prophet Moses (a) and before the Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj immigrated there because of the 'Arim floods. According to such accounts, in the wake of the Roman war with the Jews (in 70 A.D.), just like many other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir escaped to Hijaz and resided in Buttahan, an area of Medina. According to Ibn Sa'd, their residence was in the area of al-Ghars.

Before Islam

Banu Nadir and other Medina-based Jews were very rich. In order to defeat or undermine the Jews, the Arabian tribes of Aws and Khazraj asked Ghassanids for help. Ghassanids went to Hijaz with an army, killing many of the Jews. Since then, Aws and Khazraj were dominant over the Jews. Later in the quarrels between Aws and Khazraj, Banu Nadir took sides with Aws. Concurrent with the emergence of Islam and before the occurrence of the Battle of Uhud, Banu Nadir had relationships with Abu Sufyan.

After Islam

After the Prophet (s)'s immigration to Medina, like other Jewish tribes, Banu Nadir made a compromise treaty with Muslims, promising to help them defend Medina in the case of any attacks, refusing to provide financial and life supports for the polytheists of Quraysh as well as commercial relations with them. But since Banu Nadir breached the treaty, the battle of Banu Nadir occurred in Rabi' I of 4/June, 625.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from بنی نضیر in Farsi Wikishia.