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Tadhkīya (Arabic: التذکیة) is a jurisprudential term which means to slaughter an animal ritually and make it permissible to eat. The meat of religiously edible animals can be eaten after tadhkiya. But, about the religiously non-edible animals, only their body parts become pure after tadhkiya.
Tadhkiya is a jurisprudential term meaning "to make an animal pure and permissible to eat by killing it in a certain manner and with special conditions." Tadhkiya is discussed in the chapter regarding hunting and slaughtering (sayd and dhabaha) in Islamic jurisprudence. The glorious Qur'an has mentioned this term in the third verse of Qur'an 5 (Sura al-Ma'ida) and mentioned that eating animals for which tadhikiya is not performed is forbidden. In some hadiths, tadhkiya is referred to as "dhakah". An animal for which tadhikiya is performed is called "mudhakka", "dhakiy" or "dhakiyya" (Ritually slaughtered) which are against "mayta" (the dead).
Methods of Tadkiya
According to Islamic rulings, the animals whose blood does not gush out, do not need tadhkiya. Also, tadhkiya does not apply to humans and the animals which are najis in essence (such as dog and pig); while tadhkiya can be performed for other animals. The method of tadhkiya is different for each type of animal which include dhabh for religiously edible animals except camel, nahr for camel, dhabh and hunting of permissible wild animals and also religiously non-edible animals and sayd (a certain method of catching) for fishes and grasshoppers.
According to jurisprudential sources, hunting, nahr and dhabh of animals should be performed by Muslims, using certain tools and observing specific conditions according to Islamic ruling, so that tadhkiya is considered properly performed (details of these conditions and the required tools are explained in the manuals of practical laws) However, tadhkiya of fishes and grasshoppers does not require being performed by Muslims or using certain tools.
In Islamic jurisprudence, after tadhkiya of religiously edible animals, eating them becomes permissible and their body parts remain pure. But, after tadhkiya of religiously non-edible animals, only their body parts become pure and according to many jurists, their leather and skin can be used for usages other than in the prayer.
According to Islamic jurisprudence, all animals the blood of which gush out, if tadhkiya is not performed for them, their body parts will be najis; but those animals whose blood does not gush out such as fishes which die in water if tadhkiya is not performed for them, are forbidden to eat but they are not najis.
- You are prohibited carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and what has been offered to other than Allah, and the animal strangled or beaten to death, and that which dies by falling or is gored to death, and that which is mangled by a beast of prey—barring that which you may purify —and what is sacrificed on stone altars [to idols], and that you should divide by raffling with arrows. All that is transgression.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from تذکیه in Farsi WikiShia.