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'Am al-Fil

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The Ababil birds attacking the army of Abraha - from the film "Muhammad" by Majid Majidi

ʿĀm al-Fīl (Arabic: عام الفيل) (literally: year of the Elephant), is the year in which Abraha, the king of Yemen, started a huge military expedition toward Mecca in order to destroy Ka'ba. As he had an army with war elephants, the year turned to be known as the year of the Elephant. This event has been addressed in the Qur'an 105. Based on a famous historical account, this year is the birth year of the Prophet Muhammad (s). Historians believe the year of the Elephant was about 570 CE in the Julian calendar.

Military Expedition

After assuming the full control over Yemen, Abraha built a church in San'a and called it: Qulays. He wrote to the Ethiopian king: I have built a church similar to which none had existed before. Upon finishing its project, I will attract the pilgrims of Mecca to my church.[1]

When Arabs knew about this letter, a member of Bani Faqim polluted the building with his feces. Upon such an outrageous act, Abraha who had long been waiting for a chance to destroy Ka'ba, prepared a great army with fourteen war elephants and started his military expedition toward Mecca.[2]

Resistance against Abraha

Two of Yemeni elite, namely Dhu nafar and Nufayl b. Habib al-Khath'ami stood against Abraha but they were defeated and captured by him.[3]

Message to 'Abd al-Muttalib

Before reaching Mecca, Abraha sent a message to 'Abd al-Muttalib, then the head of Quraysh, saying: I have not come to kill people but only to destroy Ka'ba.[4]

'Abd al-Muttalib went to him and asked him to give back his 200 camels which were plundered by Abraha's army.

Abraha said in amazement: with all nobility that I see in your character, I don't undrestand why you make such a humble request, while I have come to destroy Ka'ba which is [the center of] your