Yemen

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The Republic of Yemen
Flag of Yemen
Flag
CapitalSana'a (de jure, Houthi Government)
Largest Sana'a
Official languages Arabic
Ethnic groups Semite and Qahtanite Arabs
Religion Islam, Christianity, Hinduism
Government Republic
Population
 -  estimate 23 million

Yemen (Arabic: "یمن") is a country in the south of the Arabian Peninsula in Asia with a long Islamic and Shia history. In early centuries of Islam, people of Yemen accepted the Islam without any war or opposition when Imam 'Ali (a) went there as the delegate of the Prophet (s). Muslims of Yemen played important roles both in strengthening Shi'a after the Event of Saqifa and in inviting Imam 'Ali (a) for caliphate after the death of 'Uthman. People of Yemen were also among the major oppositions of Mu'awiya and in the Event of 'Ashura, some of them defended Imam al-Husayn (a).

Since 280/893-94, has been considered the center of Zaydiyya.

Shi'as of Yemen do not have a good relationship with the central government. They are also under the threat of Salafis who are known to be mostly supported by Saudi Arabia. However, they have recently tried to play a greater role in developments of Yemen. Houthis are the most important Shia group in Yemen.

In 2015, after a chains of events which led to the escape of Mansur Hadi, the resigned president of Yemen from the capital and taking of power by Houthis, Saudi Arabia, supported by the United States of America and some western countries and most Arabic countries, began a series of air invasions against Yemen which led to killing of many civilians.

Geography

Yemen has borders with Saudi Arabia at north, and with Oman in the east and the Gulf of 'Adan in the south and in the west with the Red Sea. The area of this country is about 869.536 square kilometers.

Major Cities

A view of the Yemeni capital of Sana'a

Yemen has historical and important cities, the most important ones of which are:

  • Sana'a: It is the center of a province with the same name. It is among the oldest capital cities of the world. This city is the political and economic capital of the Republic of Yemen. This city has been known with this name since the time of Jesus (a).
  • Marib: It is the most famous city in the ancient Yemen which is located in the east of Sana'a. It has been the old capital of the governments of Sheba and its queen, Bilqis. Marib is the same land of Sheba, God has mentioned in the Qur'an, the people of which were punished with the flood of 'Arim.
  • Sa'dah: This city is the center of Sa'dah Province and one of the major cities of Yemen which has played an important role in Islamic history. This city was considered a place of stay for hajj pilgrims and businessmen who went to Mecca. The old city is surrounded by a wall. It was the center for the government of Al-Hadi ila l-Haqq (the first imam of Zaidis) and there is a mosque with the name Imam al-Hadi in this city which is located 243 Km north of Sana'a. It has buildings with walls built of clay many years ago and they are still firm and stable. This city has ancient and historical sites.
  • Shabwa: It is another old city of Yemen. Shabwa is mostly known due to its history as the capital of Hadhramaut government and it has a very important role in the history of Yemen.
  • Dhamar: This city is known for its special architecture and Islamic schools. Houses in this city are made of black decorative stones. These stones used in orderly tiles have given great elegance to the walls of the houses in this city. Al-Shamsiyya Islamic school of this city has had many graduates.
  • Aden: It is the capital of the Province of Aden and it is considered a financial center in the country. Aden is an ancient city which has seen important historical events. This city is a strategic center in Yemen and the most important natural pass between the Arab Sea and Indian Ocean and an important pass for the Red Sea.
  • Say'un: This city is located in Hadhramaut Province. It is among ancient cities of Yemen and believed to have been the place of living the tribe of 'Ad. The tomb attributed to the Prophet Hud (a) is located in this city.

Al-Houta, al-Mahwit, al-Shihr, al-Bayda', Yarim, Dhafar, Damt, Abs, Jibla, Taiz, al-Ghayda, Zinjibar and al-Hudayda are other important cities of Yemen.

People and Population

People of Yemen are Semite and Qahtanite Arabs. Qahtanites are believed to be the origin of Arabs. People who live in northern areas are Arab, but since many years ago, other minorities from India, Pakistan, Somalia, Eritrea, and Ethiopia have immigrated to the southern area. The social structure of Yemen is tribal. The official language of Yemen is Arabic and they write in Arabic too.

Having a population of around 23 million, Yemen is considered a populated country in peninsula. Most of the people of Yemen are armed warriors of different tribes and thus, the government of Yemen can quickly mobilize more than one million people when necessary which is worrisome for Saudi Arabia.

Importance

History and Culture

Yemen has a long history. Marib is the most famous ancient city in the world which has been once the capital of Bilqis, queen of Sheba and other rulers of Yemen and is known as Ard al-Jannatayn. The old dam of Marib is among historical sites of Yemen located in this region. Marib dam was built at the time of 'Abd al-Shams Musa, 2670 years ago between the two mountains of Balaq al-Ayman and Balaq al-Aysar. The famous German orientalist Moritz believe that letter alphabets were seen for the first time in Yemen and contrary to what is registered for Semitic Phoenicians, inventors of alphabets were Yemenis and Phoenicians followed their writing based on Arabic writing of Yemenis. Having such a past, Yemen has a great history.

Yemen has many ancient and cultural sites, some of which are mentioned in the noble Qur'an. In the recent years, explorers have been busy excavating these remains from under the soil. Also, existence of libraries full of valuable manuscripts adds to the cultural value of this country.

Strategic

Having control over the Bab al-Mandab strait, Yemen can control the Red Sea and even block it using the strategic and important Barim Island. Yemen has 200 islands.

Religions and Denominations

Islam

Islam is the official religion of Yemen. Majority of the population of this country are Muslim. About 30% of the Muslims are Zaidis and the rest are Shafi'is. There is a minority of Isma'ili Shia and few Twelver Shia living in Yemen as well.

Christianity

  • Catholic: Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia is an apostolic vicariate for the region including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen and it is estimated that it has 600 thousand Catholics.
  • Anglican: Under the Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East, Yemen is part of the Anglican Diocese of Cyprus and the Persian Gulf. This community is in Aden and Sana'a and its followers are foreign immigrants. The Bishop in Cyprus and the Gulf resides in Cyprus while the parish priest and chaplan of St Thomas Al Ain resides in the United Arab Emirates.

Hinduism

A few Hindus are also living in Yemen.

History of Shia in Yemen

Time of the Prophet (s)

Al-Jami' al-Kabir in Sana'a is the first mosque constructed in Yemen and one of the oldest Islamic mosques.

Yemen is the only country the people of which accepted Islam by coming of Imam Ali (a) as the delegate of the Prophet (s) without war. However before that, Badhan, the Iranian governor of Yemen and many of Abna' (Iranian residents of Yemen) had accepted Islam after sending of the Prophet's (s) letter to Khosrow II.

Before sending Imam Ali (a), the Prophet (s) had sent Khalid b. al-Walid and Mu'adh b. Jabal to Yemen but they were not successful in attracting people to Islam; so, he (s) sent Imam Ali (a) to Yemen. He (a) invited Hamdan tribe who were among the biggest tribes of Yemen for hearing the letter of the Prophet (s). Magnificence of the word of the Prophet (s) was so that the people of Hamdan tribe were impressed and all of them accepted Islam in one day. After Hamdan, Madhhij and Nakha' tribes accepted Islam. After the entrance of Imam Ali (a) to Yemen, the first person who accepted Islam was a women whose name was Umm Sa'id al-Barzakhiyya. This woman made her house like a mosque and called it "Masjid Ali" which is famous now and is still remaining.

Time of Caliphs

Friendship between Yemenis and Imam Ali (a) was so deep that from the 23 people who were the first Shia after the Event of Saqifa, 10 of the Ansar were Yemeni. It is mentioned in another report that when Ziyad b. Labid al-Ansari was the representative of Hadramaut, Harith b. Mu'awiya al-Tamimi, Haritha b. Suraqa al-Kindi, and al-Ash'ath b. Qays al-Kindi who were chiefs of Yemeni tribes told Ziyad, "We follow the family of the Prophet (s). Why did you prevented them from caliphate?"

After the establishment of caliphate, the lands captured by the Islamic government expanded. In order to support the army of Muslims, by the order of the second caliph, the two military towns of Kufa and Basra were established in 16/637, and some Yemeni tribes immigrated to them. After a while, the social face of the city turned in favor of Yemenis. Hamdan tribe was among those groups who settled in Kufa and played an important role in political changes of the Islamic world in the first century.

Time of Imam Ali (a)

When the caliphate of Imam Ali (a) was mentioned, despite his disagreement, Yemeni tribes had a more important role in encouraging him for accepting caliphate than others and according to reports, the first person who made allegiance with Imam Ali (a) was Malik al-Ashtar. Among the first steps of Imam Ali (a) was choosing governors for Islamic lands. He chose 'Ubayd Allah b. al-'Abbas for Yemen and sent him there.

Since the beginning of Imam Ali's (a) caliphate, oppositions of previous allies began and the Battle of Jamal happened; when Yemeni forces of Imam Ali's (a) army actively participated in the war and were among the most effective factors of Imam's victory at the war. Also, in the Battle of Siffin, some Yemeni political figures made great efforts among whom were Malik al-Ashtar, 'Ady b. Hatim al-Ta'i, Zuhar b. Qays, and Hani b. 'Urwa. Among other Yemeni tribes who participated in the Battle of Siffin were Banu Ahmas from Bujayla b. Anmar b. Nazar clan, and according to the book Waq'at Siffin, from this clan, 700 people participated in the war.

Loyalty of Yemenis to Imam Ali (a) incurred Mu'awiya's enmity towards them. He sent Busr b. Artat to Yemen and he made so many crimes when he entered there. He killed 30 thousand people, burned a group of people in fire and captured women of Hamdan and sold them in the market. When Imam Ali (a) received the reports of Busr's crimes, cursed him and implored to God, "O God! Take this manner, reason, and waywardness of him!" Busr b. Artah was inflicted by obsession, became insane and died that way.

Time of Mu'awiya

When Mu'awiya took the power, his confrontation with Shia increased. Meanwhile, Shia of Yemen were so much harassed. Hujr b. 'Adi and 'Amr b. Hamiq al-Khuza'i were two Shia noblemen who were martyred at the time of Mu'awiya. These two, especially Hujr revealed many deceptions of Mu'awiya and this made him murder them.

The movement of Hujr b. 'Adi must be considered the most serious Shia movement after the peace treaty of Imam al-Hasan (a) up until the uprising of Imam al-Husayn (a). This movement so much worried Umayyads that they mobilized all their forces to suppress it and even justified killing him by asking the noblemen of Kufa testify and introduced him as an insurgent.

Time of Imam al-Husayn (a)

At the time of Imam al-Husayn (a), when the people of Kufa mentioned their readiness for inviting the Imam (a) and the flood of letters flew towards him (a), many Yemeni people were among those who invited him (a). When the Imam (a) wanted to go to Kufa, 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas advised him (a) to go to Yemen instead of Kufa, since there were Shia there who loved the Ahl al-Bayt (a).

The event of 'Ashura was another presentation of Yemeni people. According to reports, from all the martyrs of this event, 34 of them were Yemenis. After the event of 'Ashura, some Shia regretted their dereliction of duty in defending Imam al-Husayn (a) and to make up for it, they established groups of resistance against Umayyads. Among such measures was Tawwabun military actions who began their opposition by the leadership of Sulayman b. Surad al-Khuza'i. The major element of this Shia movement was Yemenis who later sacrificed their lives for their beliefs in defending the Ahl al-Bayt (a).

Time of Umayyads

Towards the end of the time of Umayyads when Abbasids emerged; due to the kinship of Talibids and Abbasids, Shia supported Abbasids and thus since 129/746-47, Abu Hamza and 'Abd Allah b. Yahya who was known as "Talib al-Haqq", without knowing about Abu Muslim al-Khurasani, wore black turbans and dress and raised black flags and declared their opposition with Marwan al-Himar. They took over Sana'a. Talib al-Haqq secured his seat in Sana'a and Abu Hamza went to Mecca and expelled the governor. Later, he could take over Medina as well. However, his actions were severely opposed by Umayyads and his army was defeated by Umayyad army in a fierce battle near Medina and Abu Hamza was also killed. Then, Umayyads moved their army to Sana'a and managed to kill Talib al-Haqq and take back Sana'a to the lands controlled by Umayyads.

Time of Abbasids

In the first century of the emergence of Abbasids, Yemen was ruled by them until al-Hadi Yahya b. al-Husayn b. al-Qasim al-Rassi (b. 245/859-60) established an independent government of Zaidi Shia in Yemen in 280/893-94. Since then, Yemen and especially its northern areas became the traditional base of Zaidis and their imams and many intellectual figures and movements emerged in that region.

Zaidi Government

Although, Zaidi government in Yemen had ups and downs and sometimes, Zaidis lost the power, they could possess the power for about 11 centuries. The table below gives a report about Zaidi rulers:

Zaidi Ruler Ruling Period Comments
Al-Hadi Yahya b. al-Husayn 280/893-94 – 298/910-11 -
Al-Murtada li-Din Allah 298/910-11 – 310/922-23 -
Al-Nasir li-Din Allah 310/922-23 – 315/927-28 -
- Until late 4th/10th century Zaidis had conflicts among themselves and had disputes with Isma'ilis and they had no major ruler.
Al-Mansur bi-Allah al-Qasim b. 'Ali d. 393/1002-3 -
Al-Mahdi li-Din Allah al-Husayn b. al-Qasim 393/1002-3 – 404/1013-14 He had special followers who believed in his occultation and Mahdism and were called Husaynis. At that time, Zaidis were divided to two sects of Mutrafiyya and Mukhtari'a.
Al-Nasir li-Din Allah Abu l-Fath al-Daylami d. 444/1052-53 He was killed by Isma'ilites of Yemen and that was the end of the first period of Zaidis' ruling in Yemen.
Al-Mutawakkil 'Ala Allah Ahmad b. Sulayman 532/1137-38 – 566/1170-71 He seriously stood against Mutrafiyya thoughts.
Al-Mansur bi-Allah 'Abd Allah b. Hamza 566/1170-71 – 614/1217-18 He is called the reviver of Zaidi thoughts in the 6th/12th century.
Al-Mahdi li-Din Allah Ahmad b. al-Husayn d. 656/1258 Some Zaidis thought that he was al-Mahdi (the savior).
Al-Mansur bi-Allah al-Hasan b. Badr al-Din Muhammad d. 670/1271-72 He was among the most famous imams of Zaidis, having genuine Zaidi thoughts in middle centuries
Al-Mutawakkil 'Ala Allah Mutahhar b. Yahya d. 697/1297-98 He was known as al-Muzallal bi-l-Ghamam
Al-Mahdi li-Din Allah Muhammad d. 728/1328 He and his father Al-Mutawakkil 'Ala Allah were two revivers of Zaidi thoughts at the beginning of the 8th/14th century.
Al-Mu'ayyad bi-Allah Yahya b. Hamza 729/1328-29 - 749/1348-49 He had many important works.
Al-Mahdi li-Din Allah Ahmad b. Yahya d. 840/1436-37 He was known as Ibn Murtada. He was the reviver of Zaidi thoughts at the beginning of the 9th century AH
Al-Hadi ila l-Haqq 'Izz al-Din b. al-Hasan d. 900/1494-95 Among great Zaidi theorists
Al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah Yahya Sharaf al-Din d. 965/1557-58 After him, for about 50 years, no Zaidi ruler had the power in Yemen, and the country was ruled by Ottoman Turks.
Al-Mansur bi-Allah al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. 'Ali 1006/1597-98 - 1029/1620 He had important works and influential students. He is introduced as the reviver of Zaidi thoughts in that century.
Al-Mu'ayyad bi-Allah Muhammad 1029/1620 - 1054/1644-45 -
Al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah Isma'il 1054/1644-45 - 1087/1676-77 After these two, for about two centuries, Zaidis had civil wars and this made Ottoman Turks to regain the power in Yemen.
Al-Mansur bi-Allah Muhammad b. Yahya Hamid al-Din d. 1322/1904-5 -
Al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah Yahya d. 1367/1947-48 The fights began at the time of al-Mansur against Ottoman government were successful at his time and Yemen was released from Ottoman's control.
Muhammad al-Badr 1962 He was disposed of power after a coup and it ends the government of Zaidis in Yemen. He fought the government of Yemen for 8 years, but he failed and finally, he died near London.

Shia in the Contemporary Time

Twelver Shia

Although in the past, Twelver Shia existed in Yemen in a limited way, but after the Islamic revolution of Iran and its influences on other Islamic countries, gradually Twelver Shia was expanded in Yemen; and Isma'ili and Zaidi scholars and students got more familiar with Twelver Shia and were attracted to them.

However, the presence of al-'Allama Badr al-Din al-Houthi, among great Zaidi scholars of Sa'dah in Iran during civil wars of 1990s in Yemen, had an undeniable effect on the inclination towards Twelver Shia among Yemeni youths. Twelver Shia has good relationship with Zaidi Shia and the Shia unity organization of peninsula in Yemen organizes Zaidi and Twelver Shia activities.

Their activities are supervised by an organization called Rabita al-Shia Jafariyya fi l-Yaman. The population of Twelver Shia of Yemen is estimated as 2 to 8 percent of the whole population of Yemen.

Scholars Some of the major Twelver Shi'a scholars in Yemen are as follows:

  • Al-Shaykh Ahmad 'Abd Allah al-Za'idi; the founder of al-Rabita al-Shia al-Jafariyya fi l-Yaman.
  • Al-Shaykh Ahmad Ali al-Marqab
  • Al-Shaykh 'Ali Ahmad al-Akwa'
  • Al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Wali Yahya al-'Akimi
  • 'Abd Allah 'Ali al-Jibli
  • 'Arif Muhammad Anis
  • Muhammad 'Abd al-Rahman al-Saqqaf
  • Al-Shaykh Muhammad Ahmad al-Radmani

The people named above are the members of the board of trustees of al-Rabita al-Shia al-Jafariyya fi l-Yaman.

  • 'Ali b. Ali al-Fari'; He was the head of al-Rabita al-Shia al-Jafariyya, who was martyred by al-Qa'ida in 2013.
  • Mabkhut Hadi al-Karshan; He was the head of al-Rabita al-Shia al-Jafariyya in Jawf region. Some unofficial sources have claimed that the government of Yemen has arrested him in the airport of Yemen in 2010.
  • Yahya Talib al-Sharif; He is originally from Jawf of Yemen living in Qom, Iran. He was arrested by the government of Yemen in 2010. His position towards Husayn al-Houthi was followed by some objections by the Union of Yemeni Students living in Qom.

Organizations

  • Rabita al-Shia al-Jafariyya fi l-Yaman: This is the most important Twelver Shia community in Yemen which was established by al-Shaykh Ahmad 'Abd Allah al-Za'idi, but he did not accept its leadership and left it to Muhammad Nasir Qa'id al-Bakhiti. However, in 2006 this community introduced a board of trustees for itself comprised of nine members. This community was formed to defend the rights of Twelver Shia and is still active.
  • Majma' al-Islami al-Yamani al-Shi'i: This center was established in Taiz province by some Yemeni converts in 2012 and has mostly focused on cultural activities.
  • Mu'assisa Dar al-Zahra (s) li-l-A'lam al-Thaqafi
  • Schools of al-Ja'fariyya in 'Adan
  • Dar Ihbab Ahl al-Bayt (a) in Taiz
  • Naba' Charity Institute
  • The Community of 'Abd Allah al-Radi': This center has been established to celebrate the position of 'Ali al-Asghar (a).

Zaidis

Regarding the long history of Zaidi government in Yemen, many of Yemeni Shia are Zaidis who make 35% of the population of Yemen. Provinces of Sa'dah, Taiz, Al Jawf, Sana'a, and then, Ibb, Dhamar, 'Amran, Marib, Hajjah, Al Mahwit and Al Hudaydah are centers of Zaidi population. The two large tribes of Yemen called Hashid and Bakil are Zaidi. Hashid and Bakil tribes have had important roles in political changes of Yemen in the years after the establishment of the republic in Yemen.

Scholars

Al-Skaykh Hamud 'Abbas al-Mu'ayyid a famous Zaidi scholar
  • Al-Sayyid Hamud Abbas al-Mu'ayyid (b. 1336/1917-18): He is now the Zaidi religious authority and the imam of al-Nahrayn grand mosque.
  • Al-Sayyid Muhammad b. Muhammad b. al-Mansur (b. 1333/1915): He has had several positions in the government.
  • Al-Sayyid 'Ali b. Ahmad al-Shihari
  • Al-Sayyid 'Abd Allah b. Yahya al-Daylami
  • Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah al-Hidar
  • Abbas Ahmad Muhammad al-Khatib
  • 'Abd al-Rahman Husayn al-Shayim
  • Majd al-Din al-Mu'ayyidi
Al-Shaykh Badr al-Din al-Houthi
  • Badr al-Din al-Houthi: He was among great scholars of Sa'dah. His separation from other Zaidi scholars happened when a group of Zaidi scholars of Yemen and most importantly Majd al-Din al-Mu'ayyidi issued a fatwa that imamate does not require having a Hashemite lineage and even though this has been a requirement, but it has been because of historical condition and it is no more a requirement and people can choose anyone who is competent for government even though not being from descendants of Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam Al-Husayn (a). Badr al-Din al-Houthi seriously opposed this fatwa and defended Twelver Shia openly so much that he wrote a book titled al-Zaidiyya fi l-Yemen, in which he explained similarities between Zaidis and Twelver Shia. In 1990s, he came to Iran and lived in Tehran for a few years and then returned to Yemen and took the leadership of the Houthi movement after his son Husayn al-Houthi was martyred. He passed away in 2010. Even though he was Zaidi, he had an influential role in promoting Twelver Shia in Yemen and especially in Sa'dah.

Zaidi Organizations

  • Badr Scientific and Cultural Institute
  • Al-Risaliyya Institute
  • Mu'assisat al-Imam Zaid b. Ali al-Thaqafiyya
  • Rabita 'Ulama al-Yaman
  • Mu'assisat al-Bayyinat al-Ijtima'iyya al-Thaqafiyya
  • Hizb al-Haqq
  • Ittihad al-Qawiyy al-Sha'biyya
  • Tanzim al-Shabab al-Mu'min
  • Tanzim al-Khiyar al-Thawri
  • Hizb al-'Idala wa l-Hurriyya
  • Multaqi l-Tasawwuf al-Islami

Isma'ilites

Main article: Isma'ilites

One of the branches of Isma'ilites is Musta'liya Tayyibi which was divided after the death of its 26th da'i, Dawud b. 'Ajabshah in 999/1590-91. The reason of its division was that after his death, a person called Dawud b. Burhan al-Din took his place and this was reported to Yemen. On the other hand, another person called Sulayman b. al-Hasan claimed that Dawud b. 'Ajabshah had declared him as the absolute da'i after himself. Since then, each of these da'is had followers, most of whom are living in India and Pakistan and some of them are living in Yemen. Today, followers of Dawud b. Burhan al-Din are called Dawudiyya or Buhra and the followers of Sulayman b. Hasan are called Sulaymaniyya or Makarima.

Makarima are living in the east of Haraz and their religious center is in Najran. Their leader is now al-Shaykh Abd Allah b. Muhammad al-Makrimi who lives in Saudi Arabia. Previously, al-Shaykh Husayn Isma'il al-Makrimi was their leader who was in the prisons of Saudi Arabia and Yemen for a long time and died in 1426/2005.

Buhras live in Sana'a, Aden, Al Hudayda and some southern provinces.

Ismailites have special mosques and educational centers in some of the cities in Yemen, such as al-Da'wa school in Manakha, Bayt al-Da'wa school in Haraz and al-Buhariyya school in Sana'a.

The chief of Buhra who is known as the absolute Da'i is now Sultan al-Mufaddal Sayf al-Din who lives in India. Before him, Sultan Muhammad Burhan al-Din was the head of this sect who died in 1435/2013-14. His representative in Yemen is Salman Rashid.

The population of Buhras is about 12,000 people. Among the important places of Ismailites in Yemen is the shrine of Hatam al-Hadarat in Haraz and every year, many of the followers of this sect travel to visit it from different parts of the world.

The main center of Buhras is in Sana'a and it is known as Maqar al-Fayd al-Hatami.

Problems and Challenges of Shia

  • Lack of life and property security against Salafis and Wahhabis is the major problem of Shia in Yemen. This problem has been developed due to the fact that Yemen has a long border with Saudi Arabia and this makes Saudi Arabia fearful of the presence of Shia behind its borders and tries to suppress Shia in any ways possible. During the war between Shia Houthis and the central government, military forces of Saudi Arabia helped Yemeni governmental forces and even Malik Abd al-'Aziz came to war-fronts of the battle. Moreover, Wahhabi terror squads has so far assassinated many great Shia scholars including the head of Rabita al-Shi'a al-Ja'fariyya in Yemen and have threatened others such as al-'Allama 'Adnan al-Junayd to assassination.
  • Widely arrest of Shia by the government
  • Issuing execution and exile sentences for Shia because of their protest against policies of the government
  • Demolition of Shia regions; some part of this demolition has been performed by hired Jordanian forces.
  • Ignorance of the central government about Shia regions and keeping them poor

New Yemen

Until 1962, Yemen was ruled by Zaidis and it had an integrated structure, but in that year, military officers of Yemen made a coup against Imam Muhammad al-Badr and made the Republic of Yemen. This led to civil wars in Yemen in which one side was the republicans and the other side was the royalists. These struggles finally led to division of the Northern Yemen from Southern Yemen and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen was formed in November 30, 1967 in the Southern Yemen. This division lasted until the dialogues for unity of the two Yemen were made in the 1980s and as the result, the Republic of Yemen was made of the unity of the Arabic Republic of Yemen (Northern Yemen) and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (Southern Yemen) in May 22, 1990.

The president of the unified Yemen was Ali Abdullah Saleh since 1978. His government was very long and was finally overthrown during the Islamic awakening.

After removal of Ali Abd Allah Salih, the government of Yemen tried to satisfy people of Yemen, but it did not happen and the people of Yemen protested again. These protests which were backed by Houthis of Yemen reached their climax in the summer of 2014. People had three requests: dismissal of the corrupted government, cancellation of the order of freeing fuel and implementation the outcomes of National Dialogue Conference. Finally, Houthis could draw the government to dialogue after taking important parts of Sana'a, the capital of Yemen.

The final agreement for solving the recent crisis in Yemen between the president and leader of Ansar Allah was made on September 20, 2014 under supervision of Jamal Binomar, the United Nations Special Adviser. According to this agreement, government of Basindawa was dismissed and by taking the political power by Ansar Allah, a new government was established the prime minister of which was Khalid Bahah. However, events went on so that Khalid Bahah resigned and Mansur Hadi went to Sana'a from Aden which was followed by reaction of Houthis and finally Mansur Hadi escaped to Saudi Arabia and they attacked Yemen in the morning of March 25, 2015 under the pretext of supporting the resigned president of Yemen.

Smoke rises from a weapons dump outside Sanaa after being hit in an air strike by Saudi Arabia.

Currently, there are wars almost in all the regions of Yemen.

Saudi Arabia's Attack

Following the resignation of the president of Yemen in 2015 and escaping to Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and nine other countries launched airstrike in Yemen in support of him.

References

  • The material for writing this article is mainly taken from یمن in Farsi WikiShia.