'Amr b. Hamiq al-Khuza'i
|'Amr b. Hamiq al-Khuza'i|
|Full Name||'Amr b. Hamiq b. Kahin b. Habib al-Khuza'i|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina, Syria, Kufa|
|Cause of Martyrdom||Martyred by Mu'awiya's agents|
|Conversion to Islam||After the Hudaybiyya Peace Treaty|
|Known for||Companion of Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a)|
|Other Activities||Protesting against 'Uthman, Attending in the battles of Jamal, Siffin, and Nahrawan, transmitter of Hadith al-Ghadir|
ʿAmr b. Ḥamiq al-Khuzāʿī (Arabic: عَمرو بن حَمِق الخُزاعي) (d. 50/670-71) was one of the Sahaba and a companion of Imam 'Ali (a) and Imam al-Hasan (a). He attended the battles of Jamal, Nahrawan and Siffin. 'Amr b. Hamiq was martyred by agents of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan, and his head was the first head that was circulated in cities. He is one of the hadith transmitters of Hadith al-Ghadir.
'Amr b. Hamiq b. Kahin b. Habib al-Khuza'i is from the Khuza'a tribe. There is no information about his life before Islam. But as it is said that he was eighty years old when he was martyred in 50/670-71, it can be said that he lived about thirty years before Hijra.
During the Prophet's (s) Life
After the Hudaybiyya Peace Treaty, 'Amr migrated to Medina, joined the Prophet (s) and converted to Islam. 'Amr b. Hamiq was a companion of the Prophet (s) and recorded some hadiths from him. Jubayr b. Nufayr, Rifa'a b. Shaddad and others narrated hadiths from him. He was also a narrator of Hadith al-Ghadir.
It is quoted that once he supplied water for the Prophet (s), the Prophet (s) prayed for him as follows: "O' God! Bless him with his youth". Because of this praying, 'Amr lived 80 years without having one white hair string in his head and face.
During the Realm of Three Caliphs
According to al-Tabari, 'Amr b. Hamiq al-Khuza'i and other opponents of 'Uthman in Kufa arranged a meeting. Sa'id b. al-'As reported their opposition to 'Uthman, and 'Uthman ordered their exile to Syria. According to Abu 'Umar in al-Isti'ab, 'Amr was one of the protestors who demonstrated against 'Uthman, and he was one of the four people who went to 'Uthman's house. Some introduce him as the murderer of 'Uthman.
A Companion of Imam 'Ali (a) and Imam al-Hasan (a)
During Imam 'Ali's (a) caliphate, 'Amr was one of the distinguished companions of Imam. Al-Kashshi introduce him as one of disciples of Imam Ali (a). According to a count, he was to Imam 'Ali (a) like Salman al-Farsi to the Prophet (s).
He attended the Battle of Jamal, Battle of Nahrawan and Battle of Siffin. Imam Ali (a) told him: "I wish I had 100 people like you in my army", and then prayed for him as follows: "O' God! lighten his heart with piety and show him the right path!"
When, in the Battle of Siffin, volumes of the Qur'an were put on spears by the army of Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan, he supported Imam Ali (a) and opposing that group he said to Imam Ali (a): :"O' Amir al-Mu'minin (a)! I swear to God that we have not followed you out of prejudice and bias. We have followed God's commands and we have sought only the right path. And if someone else invited us to what you invite us, it would be subject to disputes and the truth would disappear."
'Amr b. Hamiq, in the Arbitration, was one of the people along with al-Hasan b. 'Ali (a), al-Husayn b. Ali (a), 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas, 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far, and Malik al-Ashtar, in Imam Ali's (a) meeting with Mu'awiya's representative, witnessed conditions that Imam (a) posed for the Arbitration.
He was a companion of Imam al-Hasan (a) as well. After Peace Treaty of Imam al-Hasan (a), Ziyad was appointed as the governor of Kufa and began to chase and kill the prominent Shiite figures, 'Amr fled from Kufa. But he was martyred by the agents of Mu'awiyay in 50/670-71. There is disagreement about his martyrdom:
Some said that Mu'awiya killed him after giving him a safe conduct. The Letter of Imam al-Husayn (a) to Mu'awiya confirm this acount:
- "Was not it you who martyred 'Amr b. Hamiq al-Khuza'i whose face and body was sickly out of worshiping God? And did you not do this after giving him a safe conduct? A safe conduct that if you gave to deer of deserts, they would confidently come down the mountains."
Some said he was arrested by Balta'a b. Abi 'Abd Allah—one of Mu'awiya's agents. Balta'a sent him to 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Abd Allah al-Thaqafi, the ruler of Mosul. He recognized 'Amr and wrote a letter to Mu'awiya concerning his case. Mu'awiya accused 'Amr of having a role in murdering 'Uthman, and replied that 'Amr should be retaliated by 9 strokes (as he allegedly stroked 'Uthman 9 times). The order was executed and 'Amr was martyred by the first or second stroke.
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr wrote that 'Amr b. Hamiq was killed by a snake's bite when he was taking a rest in a cave. However, Ziyad's agent who was chasing 'Amr found his corpse, decapitated his head and sent it Ziyad who sent it in turn to Mu'awiya.
Events after Martyrdom
Mu'awiya ordered that 'Amr's head be circulated in cities. Then he ordered that 'Amr's head be sent to his imprisoned wife, Amina bt. Shurayd. His agents threw his head to his wife's lap. She sent a curse to Mu'awiya. He ordered his agents to bring her to him. There was then a harsh conversation between her and Mu'awiya.
'Amr b. Hamiq's Resting Place
According to Ibn Athir, 'Amr b. Hamiq's resting place outside Mosul was very well-known and frequently visited by people. There is a huge darih built over his grave. Abu 'Abd Allah Sa'id b. Hamdan, the cousin of Sayf al-Dawla and Nasir al-Dawla al-Hamdani,was the first person who constructed 'Amr's grave in Sha'ban 336/948.
The material for this article is mainly taken from عمرو بن حمق خزاعی in Farsi Wikishia.