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Abu Sa'id al-Khudri

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Sahaba
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri
Personal Information
Kunya Abu Sa'id
Epithet Al-Khudri
Lineage Banu Khudra from Banu 'Awf
Birth 10 before Hijra/612-3
Place of Birth Medina
Muhajir/Ansar Ansar
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Death/Martyrdom 74/693-4
Burial Place Baqi' cemetery
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Most of Ghazwas after the Battle of Uhud
Other Activities Participating in the Battles of Siffin and Nahrawan

Saʿd b. Mālik b. Sinān, (Arabic: سَعد بن مالک بن سِنان) (b. 10 BH/612-3 - d. 74/693-4), Known as Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī, (Arabic: ابوسعید الخُدری), was one of the youngest companion of the Prophet (s). His father was a companion to the Prophet (s) and his mother, Anisa bt. Abi Haritha, was from Banu Najjar tribe.

He accompanied the Prophet (s) in various battles. In the caliphate period of Imam 'Ali (a) he participated in the battles of Siffin and Nahrawan with Imam 'Ali (a). Historians counted him among the elites of Ansar and emphasized on his knowledge.

Shi'a scholars in rijal honored and admired him very much. Most historian dated his demise in 74/693-4, but some believed that he passed away a year after the Incident of Harra in 64/683-4. Some sources assert that he was buried in al-Baqi', Medina.

Lineage

Abu Sa'id Sa'd b. Malik b. Sinan al-Khudri, (b. 10 before Hijra/612-3 ; d. 74/693-4) was a companion to the Prophet (s) and one of Ansar in Medina. His surname was derived from his great ancestor "Khudra" who was also known as "al-Abjar".[1] Banu Khudra was a clan of Banu 'Awf from Ansar. His father was a companion to the Prophet (s) and his mother, Anisa bt. Abi Haritha, was from Banu Najjar tribe.[2]

Merits and Characteristics

Historians counted him among the elites of Ansar[3] and emphasized on his knowledge.[4] Shi'a scholars in 'ilm al-rijal honored and admired him very much[5] and regarded him in the rank of Salman al-Farsi and Abu Dhar among the companions of the Prophet (s)[6]. He was counted from "Asfiya'" among the companions of Imam 'Ali (a). After the Prophet's (s) demise, he became one of the chosen companions of Imam 'Ali (a) and participated in the battles of Siffin and Nahrawan.

It has been narrated in Rijal al-Kashshi from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that Abu Sa'id was steadfast in his religion and knew the right (Haqq). Also, it has been narrated from Fadl b. Shadhan that Abu Sa'id was from pioneers of companions on that time[7]. He narrated many hadiths from the Prophet (s). He is listed among the narrators of the Event of Ghadir Khumm. He used to say: "I know hypocrites from their enmity toward 'Ali (a)." He also narrated hadiths from famous companions. Among who has narrated hadith from Abu Sa'id are some companions of the Prophet (s) like:

and many of Tabi'un like: Sa'id b. Musayyib, 'Ata' b. Yasar and Nafi'[8]. It is said that he has narrated 1170 hadiths from the Prophet (s), some of which has been quoted by authors of Sihah like al-Bukhari and Muslim[9]. Baqi b. Khuld had collected many of Abu Sa'id's narrations in his book al-Musnad al-kabir[10]. Abu Sa'id was known among Sahaba for his pity and ascesis. In this regard, Abu Nu'aym in Hilyat al-awliya'[11] and Ibn al-Jawi in Safat al-safwa have described his characteristics.[12]

Participation in the Battles and Political Affairs

He was 13 when the Battle of Uhud took place. His father suggested him for participation in the battle. Although his father insisted on his participation, the Prophet (s) did not accept that due to his young age. However, after the Battle of Uhud, he took part in various battles.[13]

In the caliphate period of Imam 'Ali (a) he participated in the battles of Siffin and Nahrawan with Imam 'Ali (a).[14]

Abu Sa'id did not have positive opinions about Banu Umayya (Umayyad dynasty) and criticized them in various occasions. One of which was when Marwan b. al-Hakam delivered the sermons of Eid prayer before the prayer.[15] Likewise, in the caliphate period of Mu'awiya, he headed to Syria to express his objection to Mu'awiya[16]. But what is said that he gave written allegiance to 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan and 'Abd al-Malik was his pupil in narration before his caliphate is dubious[17]; because aside from chronological mismatch, it does not accord with the kind of relationship Abu Sa'id had with Umayyad dynasty.

According to Ibn Qutayba[18], in the Incident of Harra –the invasion of Medina by the Levant army- Abu Sa'id sat in his house, but the Levant soldiers invade his house and asked him for money, and when they did not find anything, they tortured him. According to another report, in the incident of Harra, Abu Sa'id took refuge to a cave and when a soldier came to kill him, he recognized Abu Sa'id and released him, he told Abu Sa'id to ask Allah for his forgiveness.[19]

Demise

Most historian dated his demise in 74/693-4[20], but some believed that he passed away a year after the incident of Harra in 64/683-4[21]. It is said that his ihtidar (death agony) lasted for three days. Some sources assert that he was buried in al-Baqi', Medina[22]. It is also notable that there is a grave by his name in Istanbul[23].

Notes

  1. Al-Tabari, Vol.11, P.525
  2. Khalifa b. Khayyat, al-Tabaqat, Vol.1, P.216
  3. Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'ab, Vol.2, P.602; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol.1, P.180; Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, Vol.2, P.289
  4. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaghat, Vol.2, P.372; Al-Khatib Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol.1, P.180; Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi, Tabaghat al-fuqaha, P.51; Al-Nawawi, Tahdhib al-asma wa l-lughat, Vol.2, P.237; Al-Dhahabi, Siyar a'lam al-nubala', Vol.3, P.170; Al-'Asqalani, al-Isaba, Vol.2, P.35
  5. Al-Barqi, Rijal, P.2
  6. Al-Barqi, Rijal, P.3
  7. Al-Tusi, Ikhtiyar ma'rifat al-rijal, PP.30-8
  8. Al-Nawawi, Tahdhib al-asma wa l-lughat, Vol.2, P.237; Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, Vol.2, P.289
  9. Al-Nawawi, Tahdhib al-asma wa l-lughat, Vol.2, P.237
  10. Al-Dhahabi, Siyar a'lam al-nubala', Vol.2, P.171
  11. Abu Nu'aym al-Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya, Vol.1
  12. Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa, Vol.1, PP.714-5
  13. Al-Tabari, al-Mukhtasar, Vol.11, PP.525-6; Al-Hakim al-Nasburi, Mustadrak al-sahihayn, Vol.3, P.563; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'ab, Vol.2, P.602
  14. Ibn Habib, al-Muhabbir, P.291; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol.1, P.180
  15. Al-Safadi, al-Wafi bi-l-wafayat, Vol.15, P.148
  16. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madinat Damashq, Vol.7, PP.182-3
  17. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, PP.229-234
  18. Ibn Qutayba, al-Imamat wa l-Siyasa, Vol.1, P.213
  19. Al-Dhahabi, Tarikh al-Islam, Vol.3, PP.220-1
  20. Khalifa b. Khayyat, al-Tabaqat, Vol.1, P.216; Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-Kabir, Vol.6, P.40; Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'ab, Vol.2, P.602; Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol.1, P.118
  21. Ibn Hayyan, Mashahir 'ulama' al-amsar, P.11
  22. Al-Hakim al-Naysaburi, Mustadrak al-sahihayn, Vol.2, P.237
  23. Isli, PP.70-3

References

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