Sa'd b. Mu'adh
|Sa'd b. Mu'adh|
|Full Name||Sa'd b. Mu'adh b. Nu'man b. Imra' al-Qays b. Zayd b. 'Abd al-Ashhal|
|Well-Known Relatives||As'ad b. Zurara (cousin)|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina|
|Burial Place||Al-Baqi' cemetery|
|Presence at Ghazwas||battles of Badr, Uhud, Khandaq, and Banu Qurayza|
|Known for||Head of Aws tribe|
|Other Activities||Judging Banu Qurayza|
Abū ʿAmr Saʿd b. Muʿādh (Arabic: ابوعمرو سعد بن مُعاذ) (d. 5/627) was one of the companions of the Prophet (s) and the chief of Aws tribe who became Muslim after the first 'Aqaba by Mus'ab b. 'Umayr in Medina and after him all his clan became Muslim. He fought in the battles of Badr and Uhud and was one of the close friends and delegates of the Prophet (s). During the betrayal of Banu Qurayza and after their defeat from Islamic army, Sa'd was chosen as their judge. During the Battle of Khandaq, he was wounded which led him to death. It is narrated from the Prophet (s) saying, "A thousand angels participated in his funeral." In Sunni sources, it is mentioned that his death shook the Divine Throne.
Sa'd became Muslim in Medina by Mus'ab b. 'Umayr and after him all his clan became Muslim. It was the first clan all of whom became Muslim, men and women. The Prophet (s) made a brotherhood bond between Sa'd and Abu 'Ubayda al-Jarrah.
After accepting Islam together with Usayd b. Hudayr, he broke the idols of Banu 'Abd al-Ashhal. He was among the noble ones of the helpers (Ansar) and the chief of Aws tribe. He was a brave, determined in speech and decision making and unwavering in jihad.
Participating in Battles
Badr and Uhud
On the day of the Battle of Badr, he was the standard-bearer of Aws tribe. He made a shade over the Prophet (s) from sunlight so that he (s) sits under it and watches the battle. Sa'd and other soldiers of Islam went back to the battlefield and whenever there was an attack to the Prophet (s) by Quraysh, he defended him together with Imam Ali (a) and other companions and at the same time, he propagate Islam.
In this battle, the Prophet (s) praised Sa'd and prayed for him. On return from the battle, Sa'd was holding the bridle of the Prophet's (s) horse and was walking alongside him while his brother was martyred in the battle.
Sa'd also participated in the Battle of Uhud.
Battle of Khandaq
- Main article: Battle of Khandaq
Also, in the middle of the Battle of Khandaq, the Prophet (s) was informed that Banu Qurayza had broken their promise and had allied with Quraysh and Ghatfan tribe. Sa'd b. Mu'adh and Sa'd b. 'Ubada whose word was influential among Banu Qurayza went to them and informed the Prophet (s) upon seeing their betrayal. When the Prophet (a) saw that they were besieged, he (s) decided to make peace with them over spending from the dates of Medina, when Sa'd b. Mu'adh said that, "we would never accept humiliation", thus, he preferred war and tore the peace treaty.
Judgment in the Event of Banu Qurayza
In the middle of the Battle of Khandaq, Banu Qurayza broke their promise with Muslims in Medina and declared enmity against Muslims. After the beginning of the battle, their warriors were defeated and besieged by Muslim soldiers and since they found themselves weak to resist, accepted the judgment of Sa'd b. Mu'adh. Sa'd went to the camp of Banu Qurayza while he was injured and sick and judged against his clan who were allied with Banu Qurayza and said that warriors of Banu Qurayza have to be killed and their wealth should be shared, their children should be enslaved. In this regard, the Prophet (s) told him that, "you issued the order of God and His messenger about them and judged in agreement with the order of God."
Mentioning some evidences, Sayyid Ja'far Shahidi has argued against such a treatment with Banu Qurayza.
In the fifth year of Hijra, five people among Muslims were martyred in the Battle of Khandaq and Sa'd was injured and one of his main veins was cut. He then was brought to the city and according to Ibn Sa'd report, when the Prophet (s) saw Sa'd, he (s) said, "get up and put down your saddles down." They erected a tent beside a mosque and did treatment on his wound but it did not work and he died after a while. He was 37 years old at the time of death.
In Sunni sources, it is mentioned that about the position Sa'd before God, the Prophet (s) said, "Throne of God shook for the death of Sa'd." But in Ma'ani al-akhbar, al-Shaykh al-Saduq said in this regard, "Imam al-Sadiq (a) was told that laypeople believe that the Throne of God shook for the death of Sa'd." Imam (a) said, "the Prophet (s) said that the throne Sa'd was on shook, but they thought that the Prophet (s) meant that about the throne of God."
When Sa'd b. Mu'adh passed away, the Prophet (s) ordered to wash his body and followed his coffin in the funeral bare footed and without his cloak and held up the left side of the coffin.
Narrations about Sa'd
- There is a narration about Sa'd from the Prophet (s) that in his funeral, 70 thousand angels participated who had never came down on earth.
- It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that Jibra'il, accompanied with many angels, participated in the prayer upon his body. Imam asked Jibra'il: Why you are performing salat on his body. He answered: due to his frequent recitation of Sura al-Tawhid sitting, standing, riding, and...
- It is narrated that the noble Prophet (s) addressed the mother of Sa'd that he would have problems in the hereafter due to his bad behavior towards his family.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سعد بن معاذ in Farsi WikiShia.