Ghazwa (Arabic: الغزوة) refers to battles of the early years of Islam in which the Prophet (s) himself was present, whether he had a military encounter in them or not. The most important ghazwas include the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. There is a disagreement among historiographers over the number of ghazwas; some take it to be 26 and others take it to be 27.
The word "ghazwa" is from the root "gh-z-w" (Arabic: غ ز و) and its plural form is "ghazwat". It literally means fight or battle. The person who fights is called "ghazi" (غازي) and its plural form is "ghuzat" (غُزاة) and "ghuzza" (غُزّا). In Islamic terminologies, the word "ghazwa" refers to any battle of the early years of Islam in which the Prophet (s) himself was present.
Beginning of Ghazwas
According to Ibn Ishaq, from Rabi' I 12 of the first year after the migration to Medina (September 622) to the Safar month of the second year (August 623), the Prophet (s) had no battles. However, according to al-Waqidi, sariyyas (military expeditions) of Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, 'Ubayda b. al-Harith, and Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas occurred in the first year of the migration to Medina.
Battles in Which Military Encounter Occurred
Al-Mas'udi mentioned Battle of Tabuk, instead of Banu l-Mustaliq.
According to al-Mas'udi, the Prophet (s)'s ghazwas were 26, but some people took their number to be 27. The ground of the disagreement is that some people take the Prophet (s)'s return from Khaybar to Wadi l-Qura to be identical with the Battle of Khaybar, but others take them to be two distinct ghazwas. However, whereas Ibn Ishaq did not mention Wadi l-Qura after Khaybar, he took the number of the Prophet (s)'s ghazwas to be 27 by counting 'Umrat al-Qada' as a ghazwa.
Battle of Mu'ta
Although the Prophet (s) was not present in the Battle of Mu'ta, it was called a "ghazwa".
|Title||Muslim forces||Forces of the enemy||Location||Date||Result|
|Battle of Abwa' (Waddan)||200 cavalries and infantries||unknown||Abwa'||Safar, 2/August, 623||Pact of mawadda with Banu Damra|
|Battle of Buwat||200 cavalries||100 people||Buwat||Rabi' I or Rabi' II, 2/September or October, 623||-|
|Battle of Dhu l-'Ushayra||200 cavalries||An alliance of Quraysh, Banu Madlaj, and Banu Damra||al-'Ushayra (a place between Mecca and Medina)||Jumada I, 2/November, 623||Breaking the alliance of Banu Madlaj and the allies of Banu Madlaj and Banu Damra|
|the First Battle of Badr||200 cavalries||Few forces under the commandership of a polytheist||Badr||Jumada II or Rabi' I, 2/ December or September, 623||The escape of polytheists|
|Battle of Badr||313 people with 2 horses and 70 camels||950 cavalries and infantries||Badr||Ramadan 17, 2/ March 16, 624||Muslims' victory over Quraysh|
|Battle of Banu Sulaym||200 cavalries||Banu Sulaym and Ghatafan||Between Mecca and Medina||Shawwal, 2/April, 624||The escape of Banu Sulaym leaving their assets in the battlefield|
|Battle of Banu Qaynuqa'||Muslims of Medina||Jews of Medina||Medina||Early Shawwl, 2/Early April 624||Dismissing the Jews from Medina|
|Battle of Sawiq||Few people||200 people||Qarqarat al-Kudr||Dhu l-Hijja, 2/June, 624||Escape of Quraysh|
|Battle of Dhi Amarr||450 people||Banu Muharib||Dhu Amarr in Najd||Muharram, 3/July, 624||Escape of Banu Tha'laba; Muslims' sojourn for one month|
|Battle of Buhran||300 cavalries||Banu Sulaym||Buhran, a mine in Hijaz or an area in Zabi'||Rabi' II, 3/September 624||-|
|Battle of Uhud||700 cavalries and infantries around Medina||2900 to 3000 people||hillsides of Mount Uhud||Shawwal, 3/March, 625||Martyrdom of 70 Muslims; failure of polytheists to gain a decisive victory; the rescue of the sieged armies of Muslims|
|Battle of Hamra' al-Asad||630 cavalries and infantries||9279 people from Quraysh||Hamra' al-Asad, between Mecca and Medina||Shawwal, 3/March, 625||Escape of the polytheists of Quraysh|
|Battle of Banu Nadir||All Muslims in Medina||the Jews of Banu Nadir||Suburbs of Medina||Rabi' I, 4/August-September 625||Dismissing Banu Nadir from the suburbs of Medina|
|Battle of Dhat al-Riqa'||400 cavalries and infantries||Banu Muharib||Dhat al-Riqa' in Najd||Jumada I, 4/October-November, 625||Escape of Banu Tha'laba and Muharib|
|Battle of Badr al-Wa'd||1000 people||2000 people||Badr||Sha'ban, 4/January-February 626||No military encounter|
|Battle of Dumat al-Jandal||1000 cavalries and infantries||Dumat al-Jandal tribes||Dumat al-Jandal||Rabi' I, 5/August 626||Escape and defeat of Jandal tribes|
|Battle of Khandaq||3000 people||10,000 people from polytheist tribes||Medina||Shawwal, 5/March 627||Defeat of parties (Ahzab) and their return without a victory|
|Battle of Banu Qurayza||3000 people||600 to 700 people||Suburbs of Medina||Dhu l-Qa'da- Dhu l-Hijja, 5/April 627||Victory of the Islamic army over Banu Qurayza'|
|Battle of Banu Lihyan||Around 3000 people||Banu Lihyan||Gharran||Jumada I, 6/September 627||Escape of Banu Lihyan|
|Battle of Dhi Qarad||500 to 700 people||Ghatafan tribe||Dhu Qarad||Jumada I, 6/September 627||A peace treaty between Muslims and the Quraysh|
|Battle of Banu l-Mustaliq||1000 cavalries and infantries||Banu l-Mustaliq||al-Muraysi'||Sha'ban, 6/January 627||Escape of polytheists after a short resistance|
|Battle of Hudaybiyya||1600 people||Quraysh||Hudaybiyya||Dhu l-Qa'da, 6/March-April 628||Peace treaty between Muslims and the Quraysh|
|Battle of Khaybar||1600 people||Jews of Khaybar||Khaybar||Muharram-Safar, 7/June 628||The defeat of people of Khaybar|
|Battle of 'Umrat al-Qada'||1400||Quraysh||Mecca||Dhu l-Hijja or Dhu l-Qa'da, 7 /March or April 629||Muslims' spirit improved and polytheists' spirit weakened|
|Conquest of Mecca||10,000 people||Quraysh and Banu Bakr||Mecca||Ramadan, 8/January 630||Conquest of Mecca|
|Battle of Hunayn||12000 people||Hawazin and Thaqif tribes||Near al-Ta'if||Shawwal, 8/February 630||The fall of Hawazin and Thaqif tribes|
|Battle of al-Ta'if||12000 people||Thaqif and Hawazin tribes||al-Ta'if||Shawwal, 8/February 630||Return to Medina without victory|
|Battle of Tabuk||30,000 people||Rome and its allies||Tabuk||Rajab and Sha'ban 9/October 630||Romans suggested a financial compromise with Muslims|
- The material for this article is mainly taken from غزوه in Farsi WikiShia.