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Taq Kasra

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Current state of Taq Kasra

Ṭāq Kasrā (طاق کسری), Ayvān-i Kasrā (ایوان کسری) or Īvān-i Madāʾin (ایوان مدائن), the most famous building constructed by Sasanid kings shook on the eve of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and its 14 barrel roofs collapsed. After the conquest of al-Madain, Muslims used the building for holding prayer. Historical reports suggest that Imam Ali (a) prayed there. Taq Kasra is located 37 km south of Baghdad, near the small town of Salman Pak, where the grave of Salman al-Farsi is located.

History and Location

Taq Kasra, Taq Kasra or Ivan-i Mada'in is the most famous building remained from Sasanid period and is located in Mada'in, 40 km south of Baghdad on the east bank of Tigris river.[1] Its construction has been attributed to Anushirvan and the date of its construction is mentioned 550 CE.[2] It is made of brick and plaster[3] and its height is 30 meters.[4] Taq Kasra is now located near the small town of Salman Pak, where the grave of Salman al-Farsi is located.[5]

Before the flood of 1888.

In 146/763, a part of the buildings around Taq Kasra was destroyed by al-Mansur al-'Abbasi to use their materials for building Baghdad. However, the Abbasid caliph stopped doing so, due to great expenses of transferring the materials.[6] According to some sources, the flood in 1888 destroyed some other parts of the buildings around Taq Kasra. Since 1970, some efforts were made to prevent the collapse of remaining parts, north of Taq Kasra; and from 1980s, the destroyed part of Taq Kasra in the north wing was reconstructed in cooperation with the University of Chicago.

Results of the Prophet's (s) Birth

Based on Islamic sources, Taq Kasra shook on the eve of the Prophet's (s) birth and its 14 barrel roofs collapsed.[7] This event together with some other happenings such as the fire in Fars fire-temple went out after a thousand years, the Saveh lake dried out and the strange dreams of the magi (the Zoroastrian priests) and Sasanid king on that night[8] were among herlads and warnings, as such happened together with the birth of the prophets (s).[9]

As a Place of Holding Prayer

After conquering al-Mada'in, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas made Taq Kasra the place of holding prayer.[10] Based on historical sources, Imam Ali (a) too, prayed there.[11] In addition to the grave of Salman al-Farsi, the grave of Hudhayfa b. Yaman is near Taq Kasra too.[12]

In Mafatih al-jinan, Shaykh 'Abbas Qumi mentioned the recommended practices upon visiting the grave of Salman al-Farsi which included performing a two-rak'a prayer in Taq Kasra and mentioned Imam Ali's (a) praying there as the reason.[13]

Notes

  1. Ḥusaynī Ashkūrī, Chikīda-yi maqālāt, p. 150.
  2. Pīrnīyā, Tārīkh-i Iran-i bāstān, vol. 4, p. 2931.
  3. ʿAwād, al-Dhakhāʾir al-sharqīyya, p. 226.
  4. Muqaddas, Rāhnamā-yi amākin-i zīyāratī, p. 348.
  5. Qumī, Amākin-i zīyāratī wa sīyāḥatī-yi Iraq, p. 62.
  6. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 7, p. 651; Marʿashī, Ghurar al-siyar, p. 370.
  7. Iṣfahānī, Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, vol. 1, p. 139; Bayhaqī, Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, vol. 1, p. 126.
  8. Iṣfahānī, Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, vol. 1, p. 139; Bayhaqī, Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa, vol. 1, p. 126-127.
  9. Rasūlī Maḥallātī, Darshā-yī az tārīkh-i taḥlīlī-yi Islām, vol. 1, p. 145-146.
  10. Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 3, p. 514.
  11. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 7, p. 651; Marʿashī, Ghurar al-siyar, p. 370.
  12. Qazwīnī, al-Mazār, p. 123-124.
  13. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, vol. 2, p. 759-760.

Reference

  • ʿAwād, Kūrkīs. Al-Dhakhāʾir al-sharqīyya. Edited by Jalīl al-ʿAṭīyya. Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Islāmī, 1999.
  • Bayhaqī, Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa. Edited by ʿAbd al-Muʿṭī Qalʿachī. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub alʿIlmīyya, 1405 AH.
  • Ḥusaynī Ashkūrī, Ṣādiq. Chikīda-yi maqālāt-i awwalīn hamāyish-i bayn al-milalī-yi mīrāth-i mushtarak-i Iran wa Iraq. Qom: Majmaʿ Dhakhāʾir Islāmī, 1393 Sh.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1385 AH.
  • Iṣfahānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Dalāʾil al-nubuwwa. Edited by Muḥammad Rawwās Qalʿachī wa ʿAbd al-Barr ʿAbbās. Beirut: Dār al-Nafāʾis, 1412 AH.
  • Marʿashī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad al-. Ghurar al-siyar. Edited by Suhayl Zakār. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Muqaddas, Iḥsān. Rāhnamā-yi amākin-i zīyāratī wa sīyāḥatī-yi Iraq. Qom: Mashʿar, 1377 Sh.
  • Pīrnīyā, Ḥasan. Tārīkh-i Iran-i bāstān. Tehran: Dunyā-yi Kitāb, 1375 Sh.
  • Qazwīnī, Sayyid Mahdī. Al-Mazār. Edited by Jawād Qazwīnī. Beirut: Dār al-Rafidīn, 1426 AH.
  • Qumī, Muḥammad Riḍā. Amākin-i zīyāratī wa sīyāḥatī-yi Iraq. Qom: Mashʿar, 1377 Sh.
  • Qummī, ʿAbbās. Mafātīḥ al-jinān. Translated to Farsi by Ḥusayn Anṣārīyān. Qom: Dār al-ʿIrfān, 1388 Sh.
  • Rasūlī Maḥallātī, Sayydi Hāshim. Darshā-yī az tārīkh-i taḥlīlī-yi Islām. Qom: Pāsdār-i Islām, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. Edited by Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm, Beirut: Rawāʾiʿ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, [n.d].