Al-Fadl b. al-Hasan al-Tabrisi

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This article is about Fadl b. Hasan al-Tabrisi. For other people named al-Tabrisi, see Al-Tabrisi (disambiguation).
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Tabrisi.jpg
Tomb of al-Tabrisi, Mashhad
Personal Information
Full Name Abu Ali Fadl b. Hasan b. Fadl al-Tabrisi
Well-Known As Amin al-Islam
Well-Known Relatives Hasan b. Fadl al-Tabrisi (his son), Abu l-Fadl 'Ali b. Hasan al-Tabrisi (his grandson)
Birth 468 or 469/1075-1077, Mashhad
Residence Mashhad, Sabzevar
Death 548/1153-1154, Sabzevar
Burial Place Mashhad
Scholarly Information
Students Hasan b. Fadl al-Tabrisi, Ibn Shahrashub, Muntajab al-Din al-Razi, ...
Works Majma' al-bayan, Jami' al-jawami', I'lam al-wara bi a'lam al-huda, Taj al-mawalid, ...

Abū ʿAli Faḍl b. Ḥasan b. Faḍl al-Ṭabrisī (Arabic:ابو علی فَضل بن حَسَن بن فَضل الطَبرِسی), titled as Amīn al-Islām (Arabic:اَمینُ الاِسلام), was a famous Shi'a exegete (Mufassir), hadith scholar (Muhaddith), jurist (Faqih), theologian (Mutakalim), litterateur (Adib), lexicologist and mathematician of the 6th/12th century. His exegeses of the Qur'an, Majma' al-bayan, is one of the most important and famous Shi'a exegesis.

Birth and Lineage

Al-Tabrisi was born in 468 or 469/1075-1077 in Mashhad. His son, Abu Nasr Hasan b. Fadl b. Hasan al-Tabrisi, is the compiler of "Makarim al-akhlaq." His grandson, Abu l-Fadl Ali b. Hasan b. Fadl al-Tabrisi, is the author of Nathr al-la'ali and Mishkat al-anwar, which he wrote as a completion to Makarim al-akhlaq.

Phonetic of "Tabrisi"

There is disagreement about the pronunciation of "Tabrisi." Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi in Riyad al-'ulama' and Muhammad Baqir Khwansari in Rawzat al-Jannat insist that it is "Tabarsi" claiming that he was from Tabaristan.

However, many scholars say that a person from Tabaristan is called "Tabari" or "Tabarani" or "Tabaristani" not "Tabarsi." They say the author of Majma' al-bayan is from Tafrish - a city located between Qom and Arak -; so his name, Tabrisi, is the arabicized of Tafrish. Bayhaqi, who was contemporaneous with him, also, reported that he was from Tafrish.

Demise

According to majorly reported account, he passed away in 548/1153-1154 in Sabzevar, where he spent the last 25 years of his life. Afandi and Muhammad Baqir Khwansari explicitly said that he was martyred; they did not report how he was martyred, though. Haji Nuri writes: "those who wrote his biography did not mention how he was martyred. Probably, he was martyred by poison; thus his martyrdom is not widely known." After his demise, his body was moved to Mashhad and was buried in a neighborhood near the holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) called Qatligah.

Teachers and Students

He narrated hadith from:

  • Abu Ali al-Tusi
  • Abu l-Wafa' 'Abd al-Jabbar b. 'Ali al-Muqri al-Razi
  • Hasan b. Husayn b. Hasan b. Babiwayh al-Qummi
  • Muwaf al-Din b. al-Fath al-Wa'iz
  • ...

Some of those who are his students and narrated hadith from him are as follow:

Works

Al-Tabrisi authored many books, some of which are very well-known.

  • Majma' al-bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an: an exegeses of the Qur'an, which is his most famous book and one of the most important Shi'a exegeses. He wrote this book in 10 volumes. According to the preface of the book, he has used Al-Tibyan, written by al-Shaykh al-Tusi, in the process of writing this book.
  • Jami' al-jawami' or Jawami' al-jami': a concise exegeses of the Qur'an. According to the preface of the book, it was intended to have the comprehensiveness of Majma' al-Bayan and the brevity of al-Kashshaf.

Some scholars believed that he was the author of al-Ihtijaj; however, as Ibn Shahr Ashub has explicitly mentioned in Ma'alim al-'Ulama', this ascription is wrong because al-Ihtijaj was written by Ahmad b. Ali b. Abi Talib al-Tabrisi.

The Story of Writing Majma' al-bayan

Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi narrated that it is said that al-Tabrisi had a heart attack. People thought that he had passed away, so they buried him. When he regained consciousness, he found himself in the grave. He vowed (made Nadhr) that if God releases him from this grave, he will write an exegeses of the Qur'an. Incidentally, a thief of Kafans (shrouds) dug his grave to steal his Kafan. When the thief started to take his Kafan, al-Tabrisi grabbed his hand and told his story to the frightened thief. At last, the thief put him on his back and took him home. Al-Tabrisi gave him the Kafan and other properties as a reward and he repented of his evil deeds. Fulfilling his vow (Nadhr), al-Tabrisi wrote "Majma' al-bayan."

References