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Hisham b. Salim al-Jawaliqi

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Companion of Imam (a)
Hisham b. Salim al-Jawaliqi
Full Name Hisham b. Salim al-Jawaliqi al-Ju'fi
Companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a)
Teknonym Abu Muhammad
Epithet "Al-'Allaf" and "al-Jawaliqi"
Religious Affiliation Imamiyya
Professors Zurara b. A'yan, Aban b. 'Uthman, Aban b. Taghlib, 'Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur, Abu Khalid al-Kabuli, Abu Hamza al-Thumali
Students Muhammad b. Abi 'Umayr, Al-Hasan b. Mahbub, 'Abd Allah b. Muskan, |Abi Nasr al-Bazanti, Hammad b. 'Uthman, Safwan b. Yahya al-Bajali

Hishām b. Sālim al-Jawālīqī al-Juʿfī, a student and companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a). His expertise in theology was more than in jurisprudence.

He quoted hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a) both directly and indirectly. His name appears in the chains of transmission of 663 hadiths in Shia hadith collections. Some of the People of Consensus are among the narrators who quoted hadith from him or among the ones from whom he quoted hadiths.

After the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Hisham had a significant role in promoting the imamate (leadership) of Imam al-Kazim (a).

Several works are attributed to him, the most famous of which is a book on Ascension.

Certain unorthodox beliefs are attributed to Hisham, but Shi'a scholars, including Ayatollah al-Khoei, consider him a reliable hadith transmitter.

Biographical Information

Hisham was a mawla (emancipated slave) of Bishr b. Marwan and among the captives of Jawzjan. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentions him by the teknonym Abu Muhammad and the epithet al-Ju'fi. He was also called by the epithets al-Jawaliqi and al-'Allaf.

Promoting the Imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a)

According to a report, when 'Abd Allah al-Aftah claimed to be the imam after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a), Hisham and Mu'min al-Taq asked him some questions regarding zakat (obligatory payment). His inadequate answer made them realize that 'Abd Allah was not the imam. After a short time of confusion, Hisham met Imam al-Kazim (a) and realized that he was the true imam. Then he started to promote the imamate (leadership) of Imam al-Kazim (a) among those companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) who had not been guided to the imamate of Imam al-Kazim (a) by then, which resulted in 'Abd Allah al-Aftah losing many of his followers. Consequently, the latter had some people beat Hisham because of that.

Quoting hadiths

Hisham quoted hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a). His name appears in 663 hadiths in Shia hadith collections. He quoted hadiths from hadith transmitters such as Abu Basir, Abu Hamza al-Thumali, Abu Khalid al-Kabuli, 'Abd Allah b. Abi Ya'fur, Aban b. Taghlib, Aban b. 'Uthman, and Zurara.

Traditionists such as Muhammad b. Abi 'Umayr, Ibn Mahbub, Ibn Muskan, al-Bazanti, Hammad b. 'Uthman, and Safwan b. Yahya quoted hadiths from him.

Debates

It is reported that a man from Syria asked Imam al-Sadiq (a) to have a debate with him. The Imam (a) told him to have debates with a number of his companions, including Hisham b. Salim.

It is also reported that Hisham had some debates with Muhammad b. Bashir, the leader of Bashiriyya.

Beliefs

Al-Sum'ani and Abu l-Hasan al-Ash'ari regard Hisham as the leader of a certain sect called Hishamiyya. They claim that Hisham believed that God had the five senses and a luminous human-like from. These beliefs are attributed to Hisham in some hadiths as well.

Ayatollah al-Khoei considers the hadiths that rebuke Hisham as unreliable and thus regards Hisham a trustworthy hadith transmitter.

Some reports indicate a difference of opinion between Hisham b. Salim and Hisham b. al-Hakam on the topic of tawhid and divine attributes. Some scholars maintain that Hisham b. Salim's belief in God having a form is a position he took against Hisham b. al-Hakam who allegedly believed in God's corporeality.

On the issue of istita'a (ability), Abu l-Hasan al-Ash'ari reports that Hisham b. Salim held that istita'a was before the action, corporeal, and a part of human beings.

Works

Hisham b. Salim had an Asl (principle), from which hadith transmitters including Ibn Abi Umayr quoted hadiths. It is also reported that he had books on hajj, exegesis, and Ascension. The latter is said to be his most well-known work.

Related Topics

References