Sa'id b. Hibat Allah al-Rawandi

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مزار قطب راوندی.jpg
Tomb of Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi in the Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a)
Personal Information
Birth ?, Rawand
Studied in Qom
Death 573/1177
Burial Place Qom
Scholarly Information
Professors Al-Fadl b. al-Hasan al-Tabrisi, 'Imad al-Din al-Tabari, ...
Students Ibn Shahrashub, Muntajab al-Din al-Razi, ...
Works Al-Khara'j wa l-jara'ih, Tahafut al-falasifa, Minhaj al-bara'a fi sharh nahj al-balagha, ...

Quṭb al-Dīn Abū l-Ḥusayn Saʿīd b. ʿAbd Allah b. Ḥusayn b. Hibat Allah al-Rāwandī al-Kāshānī, (Arabic: قطب‌الدين ابوالحسين سعيد بن عبدالله بن حسين بن هبةالله الراوندي الکاشاني) (d. 573/1177) known as al-Qutb al-Rawandi, hadith scholar, commentator, theologian, faqih, philosopher and great Shi'a historian in 6th/12th century, and was al-Shaykh al-Tabrisi's student. He has a lot of works, but al-Khara'j wa l-jara'ih is the most prominent.

Ibn Shahrashub al-Mazandarani and Shaykh Muntajab al-Din al-Razi are the most well-known students of his.

Life

He was born in Rawand, a town near Kashan, but his exact birthday is unknown.[1]

It is said that his kunyas were Abu l-Hasan and Abu l-Husayn[2].

According to al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin he has three sons:

  • 'Ali
  • Muhammad
  • Husayn[3]

Education

Initially he was taught by his father and his grandfather and then set off for Qom. According to Afandi al-Isfahani, he received and narrated some hadith from hadith authorities in Isfahan, Khurasan, and Hamadan.[4]

In the View of Scholars

Allama Amini stated about him: al-Rawandi is one of the heads of Shi'a scholars, chosen of the sect, one of the fiqh and hadith masters, and an intelligent man in knowledge and literature. No fault is seen in his plenty of works, his honors, his efforts and religious works, his good deeds, and great books.[5]

The author of Rawdat al-jannat has praised him elaborately. In an introduction to Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi he states: He is faqih, a prominent and reliable person having diverse works[6].

Mirza Abd Allah Afandi al-Isfahani has said about him: He was a Shaykh, pioneer in fiqh, an honorable person, familiar with hadiths and poetry, muhaddith and mutakallim[7].

Shaykh 'Abbas Qumi has written about him: He was a scholar, faqih, muhaddith and researcher. He absolutely is one of the great muhaddiths of Shi'a[8],

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, a Sunni scholar, states about him: He is Shi'a and masters all fields of knowledge. Also, he has works in every kind[9].

Masters

Students

  • Rashid al-Din Muhammad b. 'Ali, well-known as Ibn Shahrashub, his most prominent student
  • Muntajab al-Din al-Razi
  • Nasir al-Din al-Husayn b. Sa'id al-Rawandi, his son
  • Zahir al-Din Muhammad b. Sa'id al-Rawandi, another son of his
  • Qadi Jamal al-Din 'Ali b. 'Abd al-Jabbar al-Tusi
  • Qadi Ahmad b. 'Ali b. 'Abd al-Jabbar al-Tusi
  • Faqih 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Mada'ini
  • Faqih 'Izz al-Din Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-'Alawi al-Baghdadi
  • Ziyn al-Din Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Hamid b. Muhammad al-Da'widar

Works

His works are said to include 60 books and treatises. Some of his works in different fields of knowledge are:

Tafsir

  • Umm al-Qur'an
  • Tafsir al-Qur'an in two volume
  • Khulasat al-tafasir in ten volumes
  • Sharh ayat al-mushkila fi l-tanzih
  • Al-Lubab fi fadl ayat al-kursi
  • Al-Nasikh wa l-mansukh min al-qur'an

Nahj al-balagha

Ibn Abi l-Hadid says: No one has explained Nahj al-balagha before me, as far as I know, except for one person who is Sa'id b. Hibat Allah b. al-Husayn known as al-Qutb al-Rawandi[11].

Kalam and Philosophy

Kitab al-Kara'ij wa al-Jara'ih

Fiqh

  • Ayat al-ahkam
  • Ahkam al-ahkam
  • Al-injaz. A commentary on the book al-Ijaz fi l-fara'id written by Shaykh al-Tusi
  • Hal al-maq'ud fi l-jamal wa l-'uqud
  • Al-shafiya fi l-ghuslat al-thaniya
  • Khums
  • Man hazrahu l-'ada' wa 'alayhi l-qada'
  • Risalat al-fuqaha'
  • Mushkilat al-nahayat
  • Al-muntaha fi sharh al-nahayat. It is a commentary on al-Nahaya by Shaykh al-Tusi and has been published in 10 volumes.
  • Al-niyyat fi jami' al-'ibadat
  • Nahyat al-nahaya
  • Fiqh al-Qur'an

Hadith

  • Tuhfat al-'ilal about supplication and its formalities and some hadiths about diseases and misfortunes.
  • Risala fi sihhat ahadith ashabuna. Its subject is about the authenticity of the hadiths narrated by Shi'a scholars.
  • Sharh al-kalamat al-mi'a includes the explanation of 100 words from Imam Ali (a).
  • Ziya' al-shahab. A commentary on the book Shahab al-akhbar written by Qadi Quda'i. Afandi al-Isfahani has implied through this book that Rawandi must have an inclination towards tasawwuf, since he has quoted the words of sufis[12]. Afandi's opinion is not capable of being verified, for Qutb is narrating the Prophet's Hadiths; moreover, some have suggest that Qadi Quda'i was Shi'a.

History

Usul al-Fiqh

Al-mustaqsa. This book is about usul al-fiqh and a commentary on Al-dhari'a written by Sayyid Murtada about usul.

Poetry and Literature

  • Al-Taqrib fi l-ta'rib
  • Al-I'rab fi l-a'rab
  • Sharh al-awamil al-mi'a including 100 factors in Nahw
  • Nafthat al-masdur, the poets of Qutb Rawandi

Death and Death Place

He passed away at 573/1177.[13] His corpse was buried in the Shrine of Lady Ma'suma (a). Currently, his tomb, which was constructed by order of Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi, can be easily observed by every pilgrim passing the Atabaki (Imam Reda (a)) courtyard (sahn).

Ayatollah Araki narrates:

"Akhund Muhammad Hasan Jalali narrated that his master Shaykh Muhammad Husayn stated: when the minister was repairing the holy courtyard (circa the time of Constitutional Revolution of Iran in 1905), a gravel hole was seen to al-Qutb al-Rawandi's tomb and I witnessed that his knees had not decomposed."

Ayatullah Araki continues:

"I had heard this before. It was very common and repetitive among the people of Qom that al-Rawandi's corpse is still fresh."

Notes

  1. A'yan al-Shi'a, Vol. 7, P. 239
  2. A'yan al-Shi'a, Vol. 7, P. 239.
  3. A'yan al-Shi'a, Vol. 7, P. 240
  4. Riyad al-ulama' , Vol. 2, P. 425
  5. Al-Ghadir, Vol.5, P.379.
  6. Rawdat al-jannat, Vol. 4, P. 6,7.
  7. Riyadul ulama' , Vol. 2, P. 419.
  8. Al-Kuna wa l-alqab, Vol. 3, P. 72.
  9. Lisan al-mizan, Vol. 3, P. 48.
  10. Rawdat al-jannat, Vol. 4, P. 7
  11. Sharh nahj al-balagha, Vol.1, P. 5.
  12. Riyadul ulama', Vol. 2, P. 421.
  13. Bihar al-anwar, Vol.105, P. 135.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from قطب راوندی in Farsi Wikishia.
  • Afandi, 'Abdullah, Riyadul ulama' wa hiyadul fudala'. Qum: Al-Khiyam Publication
  • Amin, Muhsin, A'yan al-Shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'aruf
  • Amini, 'Abdul Husain, al-Ghadir. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi
  • 'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar, Lisan al-mizan. Beirut: Al-A'lami, 1390
  • Kansari, Muhammad Baqir, Rawdat al-jannat fi sharh al-'ulama' wa al-sadat. Qum: Isma'ilyan
  • Qummi, 'Abbas, al-Kuna wa l-alqab. Tehran: Maktabat al-Sadr
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar. Beirut: Al-Wafa' Inistitution