Al-'Allama al-Hilli

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Al-'Allama al-Hillihttp://en.wikishia.net
Personal Information
Full Name Abu Mansur Jamal al-Din al-Hasan b. Yusuf b. Mutahhar al-Hilli
Well-Known Relatives Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Hilli
Birth 648/1251
Residence Hillah
Studied in Hillah
Death 726/1326
Burial Place Najaf
Scholarly Information
Professors Al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, al-Sayyid b. Tawus, al-Sayyid Ahmad b. Tawus, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Students Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin, Qutb al-Din al-Razi
Works Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shar'iyya, Tadhkirat al-fuqaha', Kashf al-murad, al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar, Minhaj al-kirama, Nahj al-Haqq wa kashf al-sidq
Scholarly
Activities
Authority of Shi'a in his time
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
His debates with scholars of the four Sunni schools lead Oljeitu to convert to Shi'a, Promotion of Shi'a in Iran

ʾAbū Manṣūr Jamāl al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf b. Muṭahhar al-Ḥillī (Arabic: ابومنصور جمال الدین الحسن ابن یوسف ابن مطهّر الحلّي) (b. 648/1251- 726/1326), known as al-'Allama al-Hilli (Arabic: العلامة الحلي), was a Shi'a scholar of the 8th/14th century. His debates and writings led to Oljeitu (Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda) becoming a Shi'a, which in turn led to the spread of Shi'a beliefs in Iran. Al-'Allama al-Hilli has many works on fiqh, usul al-fiqh, theology, philosophy, logic, supplications and other fields of Islamic studies. Because of his wast knowledge, he was the first person entitled Ayatollah.

Life and Education

Al-'Allama al-Hilli was born on the eve of Friday, 29th of Ramadan 648/1 January 1251, in Hillah.[1]

He was very young when he began his education under the supervision of his father, al-Shaykh Yusuf b. Mutahhar al-Hilli.[2] After being taught introductory subjects and Arabic grammar, he studied fiqh, usul al-fiqh, hadith and theology under his father and his uncle, al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli. Later, he studied logic, philosophy and astronomy under other scholars, particularly Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Due to reaching the level of Ijtihad before attaining maturity, and achieving many other merits at a very young age, he became known in his family and scholarly circles by the name of "Jamal al-Din".[3]

Scholarly Status

After the demise of the Shi'a Marja' al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli in 676/1278, his students and other scholars from Hillah chose to follow al-'Allama al-Hilli as their marja' at the ripe young age of 28.

Because of his wast knowledge, he was the first person entitled Ayatollah.[4] Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852/1448) regards al-'Allama al-Hilli as "Ayat fi al-Dhaka", (a sign of intelligence).[5] Sharaf al-Din al-Shawlistani, Shaykh Baha'i, and al-'Allama al-Majlisi, in various certificates for their students, mentioned al-'Allama al-Hilli with the title: Ayatollah fi l-'Alamin (the sign of Allah in the worlds)[6]

Arrival in Iran

The exact date of his arrival in Iran is unknown, but it was likely after 705/1306. He came to Iran following the invitation of Oljeitu, a king of the Ilkhanid dynasty.[7] In one meeting, he debated with scholars of the four Sunni schools, including Khwajih Nizam al-Din 'Abd al-Malik al-Maragha'i, and strongly refuted all of their arguments. Following this debate, the king accepted Imam 'Ali (a) as the rightful successor after the Prophet (s), and became a Shi'a. He then changed his name from Oljaitu to Muhammad Khuda Banda (Muhammad, the Servant of God).[8]

Up to the time of the King's death, al-'Allama al-Hilli stayed in Iran and spread the Shi'a faith. He accompanied the King in all of his journeys, and - following a suggestion from the King - continued his classes and scholarly discussions during these journeys in a mobile school made from a tent.[9]

Teachers

Some of his teachers were:

Students

Some of his students were:

Works

Fiqh

Usul al-Fiqh

  • Al-Nuktat al-badi'a fi tahrir al-dhari'a
  • Ghayat al-wusul wa 'idah al-subul
  • Muntaha al-wusul ila 'ilm al-kalam wa l-usul
  • and three others. . .

Kalam (theology)

Kashf al-Murad

Hadith

  • Masabih al-anwar
  • Jami' al-akhbar
  • Sharh al-kalamat al-khams li-Amir al-Mu'minin
  • and five others. . .

Rijal

Exegesis of Qur'an

  • Nahj al-Iman fi tafsir al-Qur'an
  • al-Qawl al-wajiz fi tafsir kitab al-'aziz
  • Idah mukhalifat al-sunna.

Philosophy and Logic

Al-Jawhar al-nadid is one of the most important refrences in Islmaic traditional logic
  • Al-Asrar al-khafiyya
  • Al-Jawhar al-nadid
  • Al-Muhakimat bayn shurrah al-isharat
  • and 20 others. . .

Supplications

  • Al-Ad'iya al-fakhirat al-manqulat 'an al-a'immat al-tahira
  • Minhaj al-salah fi ikhtisar al-misbah.

Arabic Literature

  • Kashf al-maknun min kitab al-qanun
  • Bast al-kafiya
  • Lubb al-hikmah
  • and three other titles. . .

Others

  • Adab al-bahth
  • Jawabat al-masa'il al-mihna'iyya al-ula
  • Jawabat al-masa'il al-mihna'iyya al-thani
  • Jawab al-su'al 'an hikmat al-naskh
  • Al-Wasiyya (will)
  • Al-Ghurriyya
  • Masa'il al-Sayyid 'Ala' al-Din.

Demise

The place of His tomb in the shrine Imam 'Ali (a)

After Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda passed away in 716/1316, al-'Allama al-Hilli returned back to his hometown of Hillah. On Muharram 21, 726/January 25, 1326, he passed away at the age of 78. He is buried in the shrine of Imam Ali (a) in Najaf.[10]

Notes

  1. Al-'Allama al-Hilli. Rijal al-'allama. p. 48
  2. Schmidtke, Sabine, Andishi-hay kalami 'Alama Hilli. p. 24
  3. Gulshan abrar. vol. 1. p. 138
  4. Da'irat al-ma'arif-i buzurg-i Islami, Ayatollah entry
  5. Al-'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. Lisan al-mizan. vol. 2. p. 317
  6. Al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir. Bihar al-anwar. vol. 1. p. 204 & vol. 81. . 107
  7. Mustadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 2, p. 406
  8. Al-Khwansari, Muhammad Baqir, Rawdat al-jannat fi ahwal al-'ulama wa al-sadat. vol. 2. p. 279-280
  9. Khwandamir, Ghiath al-Din Muhammad. Habib al-siyar fi afrad al-bashar. vol. 3. p. 197; Shushtari, Nur Allah b. Sharif al-Din. Majalis al-mu'minin. vol. 2. p. 360
  10. Al-Amin, A'yan al-Shi'a, vol. 24, p. 223; Al-Shushtari, Majalis al-mu'minin, vol. 1, p. 574

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from علامه حلی in Farsi Wikishia.
  • Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf al-. Rijal al-'Allama. Najaf: Haydariyya, 1961.
  • Amin, al-Sayyid Muhsin al-. A'yan al-Shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'arif li-l-Matbu'at, 1986.
  • Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-. Lisan al-mizan. Beirut, 1390AH.
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. Bihar al-anwar. Beirut, 1403AH.
  • Group of authors. Gulshan abrar. Qom: Nashr Ma'ruf, 1385Sh.
  • Schmidtke, Sabine. Andishiha-yi kalami-yi 'Alama Hilli. trans. Ahmad Namayi. Mashahad: Bunyad-i Pazhuhishha-yi Islami. 1378 SH.
  • Khwansari, Muhammad Baqir. Rawdat al-jannat fi ahwal al-'ulama wa l-sadat. Qom, 1986.
  • Khwandamir, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. Habib al-siyar fi afrad al-bashar. Tehran: Kitabkhana-yi Khayyam, 1333Sh.
  • Shushtari, Nur Allah b. Sharif al-Din. Majalis al-mu'minin. Tehran, 1365Sh.