|Full Name||Abu Mansur Jamal al-Din al-Hasan b. Yusuf b. Mutahhar al-Hilli|
|Well-Known Relatives||Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Hilli|
|Professors||Al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, al-Sayyid b. Tawus, al-Sayyid Ahmad b. Tawus, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi|
|Students||Fakhr al-Muhaqqiqin, Qutb al-Din al-Razi|
|Works||Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shar'iyya, Tadhkirat al-fuqaha', Kashf al-murad, al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar, Minhaj al-kirama, Nahj al-Haqq wa kashf al-sidq|
|Authority of Shi'a in his time|
|His debates with scholars of the four Sunni schools lead Oljeitu to convert to Shi'a, Promotion of Shi'a in Iran|
ʾAbū Manṣūr Jamāl al-Dīn al-Ḥasan b. Yūsuf b. Muṭahhar al-Ḥillī (Arabic: ابومنصور جمال الدین الحسن ابن یوسف ابن مطهّر الحلّي) (b. 648/1251- 726/1326), known as al-'Allama al-Hilli (Arabic: العلامة الحلي), was a Shi'a scholar of the 8th/14th century. His debates and writings led to Oljeitu (Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda) becoming a Shi'a, which in turn led to the spread of Shi'a beliefs in Iran. Al-'Allama al-Hilli has many works on fiqh, usul al-fiqh, theology, philosophy, logic, supplications and other fields of Islamic studies. Because of his wast knowledge, he was the first person entitled Ayatollah.
Life and Education
He was very young when he began his education under the supervision of his father, al-Shaykh Yusuf b. Mutahhar al-Hilli. After being taught introductory subjects and Arabic grammar, he studied fiqh, usul al-fiqh, hadith and theology under his father and his uncle, al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli. Later, he studied logic, philosophy and astronomy under other scholars, particularly Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Due to reaching the level of Ijtihad before attaining maturity, and achieving many other merits at a very young age, he became known in his family and scholarly circles by the name of "Jamal al-Din".
Because of his wast knowledge, he was the first person entitled Ayatollah. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852/1448) regards al-'Allama al-Hilli as "Ayat fi al-Dhaka", (a sign of intelligence). Sharaf al-Din al-Shawlistani, Shaykh Baha'i, and al-'Allama al-Majlisi, in various certificates for their students, mentioned al-'Allama al-Hilli with the title: Ayatollah fi l-'Alamin (the sign of Allah in the worlds)
Arrival in Iran
The exact date of his arrival in Iran is unknown, but it was likely after 705/1306. He came to Iran following the invitation of Oljeitu, a king of the Ilkhanid dynasty. In one meeting, he debated with scholars of the four Sunni schools, including Khwajih Nizam al-Din 'Abd al-Malik al-Maragha'i, and strongly refuted all of their arguments. Following this debate, the king accepted Imam 'Ali (a) as the rightful successor after the Prophet (s), and became a Shi'a. He then changed his name from Oljaitu to Muhammad Khuda Banda (Muhammad, the Servant of God).
Up to the time of the King's death, al-'Allama al-Hilli stayed in Iran and spread the Shi'a faith. He accompanied the King in all of his journeys, and - following a suggestion from the King - continued his classes and scholarly discussions during these journeys in a mobile school made from a tent.
Some of his teachers were:
Some of his students were:
- Muntaha al-matlab fi tahqiq al-madhhab
- Talkhis al-maram fi ma'rifat al-ahkam
- Tahrir al-ahkam al-shar'iyya 'ala madhab al-imamiyya
- Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a fi ahkam al-shar'iyya
- Tabsirat al-muti'allimin fi ahkam al-Din
- Tadhkirat al-fuqaha'
- Irshad al-adhhan fi ahkam al-iman
- Madarik al-'ahkam
- Nihayat al-ahkam
- and 10 other titles. . .
- Al-Nuktat al-badi'a fi tahrir al-dhari'a
- Ghayat al-wusul wa 'idah al-subul
- Muntaha al-wusul ila 'ilm al-kalam wa l-usul
- and three others. . .
- Masabih al-anwar
- Jami' al-akhbar
- Sharh al-kalamat al-khams li-Amir al-Mu'minin
- and five others. . .
- Khulasat al-aqwal fi ma'rifat al-rijal
- Kashf al-maqal fi ma'rifat al-rijal
- and Idah al-ishtibah
Exegesis of Qur'an
- Nahj al-Iman fi tafsir al-Qur'an
- al-Qawl al-wajiz fi tafsir kitab al-'aziz
- Idah mukhalifat al-sunna.
Philosophy and Logic
- Al-Asrar al-khafiyya
- Al-Jawhar al-nadid
- Al-Muhakimat bayn shurrah al-isharat
- and 20 others. . .
- Al-Ad'iya al-fakhirat al-manqulat 'an al-a'immat al-tahira
- Minhaj al-salah fi ikhtisar al-misbah.
- Kashf al-maknun min kitab al-qanun
- Bast al-kafiya
- Lubb al-hikmah
- and three other titles. . .
- Adab al-bahth
- Jawabat al-masa'il al-mihna'iyya al-ula
- Jawabat al-masa'il al-mihna'iyya al-thani
- Jawab al-su'al 'an hikmat al-naskh
- Al-Wasiyya (will)
- Masa'il al-Sayyid 'Ala' al-Din.
After Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda passed away in 716/1316, al-'Allama al-Hilli returned back to his hometown of Hillah. On Muharram 21, 726/January 25, 1326, he passed away at the age of 78. He is buried in the shrine of Imam Ali (a) in Najaf.
- Al-'Allama al-Hilli. Rijal al-'allama. p. 48
- Schmidtke, Sabine, Andishi-hay kalami 'Alama Hilli. p. 24
- Gulshan abrar. vol. 1. p. 138
- Da'irat al-ma'arif-i buzurg-i Islami, Ayatollah entry
- Al-'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar. Lisan al-mizan. vol. 2. p. 317
- Al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir. Bihar al-anwar. vol. 1. p. 204 & vol. 81. . 107
- Mustadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 2, p. 406
- Al-Khwansari, Muhammad Baqir, Rawdat al-jannat fi ahwal al-'ulama wa al-sadat. vol. 2. p. 279-280
- Khwandamir, Ghiath al-Din Muhammad. Habib al-siyar fi afrad al-bashar. vol. 3. p. 197; Shushtari, Nur Allah b. Sharif al-Din. Majalis al-mu'minin. vol. 2. p. 360
- Al-Amin, A'yan al-Shi'a, vol. 24, p. 223; Al-Shushtari, Majalis al-mu'minin, vol. 1, p. 574
- The material for this article is mainly taken from علامه حلی in Farsi Wikishia.
- Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf al-. Rijal al-'Allama. Najaf: Haydariyya, 1961.
- Amin, al-Sayyid Muhsin al-. A'yan al-Shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'arif li-l-Matbu'at, 1986.
- Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-. Lisan al-mizan. Beirut, 1390AH.
- Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. Bihar al-anwar. Beirut, 1403AH.
- Group of authors. Gulshan abrar. Qom: Nashr Ma'ruf, 1385Sh.
- Schmidtke, Sabine. Andishiha-yi kalami-yi 'Alama Hilli. trans. Ahmad Namayi. Mashahad: Bunyad-i Pazhuhishha-yi Islami. 1378 SH.
- Khwansari, Muhammad Baqir. Rawdat al-jannat fi ahwal al-'ulama wa l-sadat. Qom, 1986.
- Khwandamir, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. Habib al-siyar fi afrad al-bashar. Tehran: Kitabkhana-yi Khayyam, 1333Sh.
- Shushtari, Nur Allah b. Sharif al-Din. Majalis al-mu'minin. Tehran, 1365Sh.