Al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar (book)
|Al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar|
|Original title||الباب الحادي عشر|
|Subject||Shi'a theological beliefs|
|Published||1412/1992, 3rd edition|
|Publisher||Mashhad: Astan Quds Publication|
|Translator||William McElwee Miller|
|En. publisher||London, Royal Asiatic Society, 1928|
ʿAl-Bāb al-ḥādī ʿashar (Arabic: الباب الحادي عشر), literally meaning, "The Eleventh Chapter", is in fact the eleventh chapter of Minhaj al-salih fi mukhtasar al-misbah. It is one of the most famous Shi'a theological works, and was written by al-'Allama al-Hilli (d. 726/1325).
- Main article: al-'Allama al-Hilli
al-'Allama al-Hilli was a Shi'a scholar of the 8th/14th century. His debates and writings led to Oljeitu (Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda) becoming a Shi'a, which in turn led to the spread of Shi'a beliefs in Iran. Al-Allamah al-Hilli has many works on fiqh, usul al-fiqh, theology, philosophy, logic, supplications and other fields of Islamic studies. Because of his wast knowledge, he was the first person entitled Ayatollah.
Al-'Allamah al-Hilli wrote the book, Minhaj al-salih fi mukhtasar al-misbah (The Path of the Righteous on Summarizing al-Misbah), upon request of the minister Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Quhadi. It is a summary of al-Shaykh al-Tusi's Misbah al-mutahajjid, a book of supplications and rituals. Allamah al-Hilli completed his summary in ten chapters, but added an eleventh chapter to discuss the doctrinal beliefs of Islam. He felt he should add this chapter since the validity of acts of worship is dependent on the correctness of one's belief, and the pleasure of worship comes only after knowing God.
He has organized this book in seven parts:
- Proving the Necessary Being
- His positive attributes
- His negative attributes
- The Hereafter
Due to its briefness and - at the same time - comprehensiveness, Al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar attracted the attention of many scholars. It was therefore published independently from the other chapters and many commentaries and glosses were written on it. Agha Buzurg Tihrani in al-Dhari'a has counted over 20 commentaries for it.
Among these commentaries, that of al-Fadil al-Miqdad, al-Nafi' yawm al-hashr fi sharh bab al-hadi 'ashar, has attained distinction among scholars and Islamic seminaries and has been copied and published several times.
Also, Miftah al-bab, a critical edition of al-Fadil al-Miqdad's commentary, has been published together with another commentary by Abu l-Fath b. al-Makhdum al-Husayni al-'Arabshahi (976/1569), under the title, al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar, li 'Allamah al-Hilli ma' sharhayh.
An English translation was published in London in 1928.
Also there are many Persian translations of al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar and of al-Fadil al-Miqdad's commentary.
- Al-Babu l-Hadi 'Ashar, translated by William McElwee Miller, London, Royal Asiatic Society, 1928 
- The material for this article is mainly taken from الباب الحادی عشر in Farsi Wikishia.
- Tihrani, Agha Buzurg. Al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a, Beirut, 1983.
- Hilli, al-Hasan b. Yusuf al-. Al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar li-l-'Allama al-Hilli, ma' sharhayh al-nafi' yaum al-hashr, li-Miqdad ibn 'Abd Allah Suyuri wa miftah al-bab li-Abi al-Fath ibn Makhdum Husayni, Tehran, Mahdi Muhaqiq, 1365Sh.