|Full Name||'Umar b. Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Basri|
|Companion of||Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a)|
|Place(s) of Residence||Basra|
ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Baṣrī (Arabic: عمر بن محمد بن عبدالرحمان البصري), known as Ibn Udhayna ( ابن اُذَینه), was a Shiite muhaddith (hadith transmitter) in the 2nd/8th century and a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a). There are 482 hadiths narrated by Ibn Udhayna in Shiite collections of hadiths, and Shiite scholars of 'ilm al-rijal have confirmed his reliability. Most hadiths narrated by him are concerned with the rulings of fiqh (jurisprudence). However, he has also narrated hadiths regarding issues of theology (kalam), such as imamate.
Companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a)
There is not much information about ibn Udhayna's life and his dates of birth and death. It is just known that he was a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a). He was also a student and a companion of Imam al-Kazim (a) as well. According to al-Najashi, he narrated hadiths from Imam al-Sadiq (a) by correspondence. If this is true, then he must have lived in Basra throughout his life, and this might be the reason why he is considered to a senior Shiite figure in Basra.
Reliability in 'Ilm al-Rijal
Ibn Udhayna narrated many hadiths; there are 482 hadiths narrated by him. Most of these hadiths, which are narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a), are quoted from Zurara b. A'yan, the well-known Shiite hadith transmitter and companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a), and some other hadith transmitters.
Many hadith transmitter in the 2nd/8th century have narrated hadiths from Ibn Udhayna.
- Muhammad b. Abi 'Umayr
- Ibn Ri'ab
- Ahmad b. Maytham b. Dukayn
- Hasan b. Muhammad b. Suma'a
- Ishaq b. Ibrahim b. 'Umar al-Yamani
- Hariz b. 'Abd Allah al-Sijistani
- 'Uthman b. 'Isa
- Jamil b. Darraj
- Hammad b. 'Isa
- 'Ali b. Hasan b. Rabat
- Mansur b. Yunus
- 'Ali b. Asbat
- Ahmad b. 'Ayidh and his father
- Muhammad b. Sadaqa al-Basri
- Durust b. Abi Mansur
- Muhammad b. 'Umar
- 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani
- Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Isa al-Ash'ari and his father
- Yunus b. 'Abd al-Rahman
Expertise in Theology
Although most hadiths narrated by Ibn Udhayna are concerned with the rulings of shari'a and fiqh, he sometimes narrated hadiths with regard to Imamate and other issues of theology, and this shows that he was an expert of theology as well. Nuri's account according to which Ibn Udhayna had theoretical debates with his opponents supports this idea.
According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Ibn Udhayna wrote an essay called al-Fara'iḍ in two short and long versions, which is narrated by Ahmad b. Maytham b. Dukayn.
Ibn Udhayna's Namesake
According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his book, Ikhtiyar ma'rifat al-rijal, there is another hadith scholar called "Muhammad b. 'Umar b. Udhayna", who is mentioned in later sources of Shiite 'ilm al-rijal. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi held that he was from Kufa, and had escaped from al-Mahdi al-'Abbasi's government, and then died in Yemen. This is why few hadiths were narrated from him. According to al-Barqi, this person was from Medina.
In general, these remarks show that there were two people called "Ibn Udhayna", because 'Umar b. Udhayna was from Basra and many hadiths were narrated by him, unlike the latter person. It is probable that Muhammad was the son of 'Umar b. Udhayna. This possibility is supported by al-Shaykh al-Tusi's remark that Muhammad was called Ibn Udhayna because of his father.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from ابن اذینه in Farsi Wikishia.