'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani
|'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani|
|Birth||Rabi' II 4 173/789|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Spouse(s)||Khadija bt. Qasim b. Hasan Amir|
|Children||Muhammad and Umm Salamah|
|Place of Burial||Ray|
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīm b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Ḥasan b. Zayd b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (a) (عبدالعظیم بن عبدالله بن علی بن حسن بن زید بن حسن بن زید بن علی بن ابیطالب) (b. 173/789 - d. 252/866), is more commonly known as al-Sayyid 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani (السيد عبدالعظيم الحسني). In Persian he is called Sayyid al-Karīm (سید الکریم) and Shah ʿAbd al-ʿAzīm (شاه عبدالعظیم). His kunya are Abu l-Qasim and Abu l-Fath.
'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani is among the famous scholars of the progeny of Imam al-Hasan (a) and a transmitter of hadith. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has compiled the hadith transmitted by him in a collection called Jami' akhbar 'Abd al-'Azim.
'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani had the opportunity to meet Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a) before passing away. His mausoleum is in the city of Ray, Tehran, in Iran. It is mentioned in some hadith that the reward for visiting his grave is equal to the reward for visiting Imam al-Husayn's tomb.
Birth and Lineage
'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani was born on Rabi' II 4, 173/November 2, 789 during the rule of Harun al-Rashid. Although there are different opinions regarding his place of birth, he was most likely born in Medina. His father was 'Abd Allah son of Ali Qafa and his mother was Hifa' daughter of Isma'il b. Ibrahim. Al-Najashi says, "After 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani passed away, a piece of writing was found in his clothes which read, 'I am Abu l-Qasim son of 'Ali son of Hasan son of Zayd son of Hasan son of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a).' " Muhaqqiq Mirdamad has written, "He ('Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani) has clear lineage in the progeny of 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a)."
Wife and Children
His wife, Khadija, was the daughter of his uncle, Qasim b. Hasan Amir, known as Abu Muhammad. His children are named Muhammad and Umm Salamah. Shaykh 'Abbas Qumi wrote regarding 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani's son, "Muhammad was a noble man known for his piety and worship."
Meeting the Imams (a)
Ayatollah Khoei rejects that 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani had the chance to meet Imam al-Rida (a).
Living in the Era of Oppression
'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani lived at the time of the Abbasids' oppression of the Shi'a - and like his fathers, was pursued for a long time. Although he practiced Taqiyya during his stay in Medina, Baghdad and Samarra, he was especially disliked by Mutawakkil and Mu'tazz.
Virtues and Position
Al-'Allama al-Hilli describes 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani as a very pious scholar.
In the Words of the Infallibles (a)
Imam al-Hadi (a) was once accompanied in a journey by 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani and addressed him saying,
- O Abu al-Qasim! You surly are our wali… you have received the religion from us which God loves… May God support you in this world and in the hereafter."
Their conversation is known as "Hadith 'Ard Din" [The narration of representing the religion].
Abu Turab Ruyani says, "I heard from Abu Hammad Razi saying that, 'I went to Imam al-Hadi (a) and asked him about the permissibility and prohibition of some issues. When I was about to leave, he (a) said, 'If you have any question about religious issues, you may ask them from 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani and say my greetings to him."
There are more than 100 hadith narrated by 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani found in various hadith references. Sahib b. 'Ubbad says, "He ['Abd al-'Azim] has transmitted many hadith and has usually narrated from Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a)."
Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has compiled a collection of hadith transmitted by 'Abd al-'Azim Hasani called Jami' akhbar 'Abd al-'Azim. In this collection there are two hadith transmitted directly from Imam al-Rida (a), 26 from Imam al-Jawad (a) and nine from Imam al-Hadi (a). There are also 65 hadith that have been transmitted indirectly from various Imams (a).
'Abd al-'Azim Hasani has compiled a work entitled, Khutab Amir al-Mu'minin (a) (Sermons of Amir al-Mu'minin (a)). He has also produced the book, Yawm wa laylah (Day and Night), which contains practices and supplications for the day and the night narrated by the Imams (a). Other book attributed to him is entitled "Riwayat 'Abd al-'Azim Hasani."
Traveling to Rey
There are conflicting reports as to how 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani ended up in Rey. According to some, he went to Rey to visit Hamza b. Musa b. Ja'far (a) on his way to visit The Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad. There are other reports saying that he was ordered by Imam al-Hadi (a) to immigrate from Samarra to Rey due to the persecution and danger of being killed by the Abbasid Caliph Mu'tazz.
According to Ahmad b. Ali al-Najashi,
- "Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid al-Barqi narrated the story as, 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani was escaping from the Sultan and came to Rey and stayed in the basement of a Shi'a in the neighborhood of Sikkat al-Mawali. He used to worship in that basement. He fasted during the day and worshiped at night. He stealthily came out at night and went to visit a grave he said was of one of the children of Musa b. Ja'far (a). He was always in that basement and the news of his coming reached every Shi'a until they all knew him.'"
It is reported that 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani passed away on Shawwal 15, 252/November 2, 866, during the time of Imam al-Hadi (a). There are conflicting reports about the cause of his death. Fakhr al-Din al-Turayhi writes, "One of the children of Abu Talib was buried alive in Rey and he was 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani." However, Wa'iz Kujuri says, "I researched about 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani in the books of Rijal and Ansab and I did not find any reliable report about his martyrdom." And finally, Najashi reports that "'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani became ill and passed away."
Reward for Visiting His Grave
Al-Shaykh al-Saduq has narrated that a man from Rey came to Imam 'Ali al-Naqi (a) and said, "I went to visit Imam al-Husayn's (a) holy shrine." Imam (a) told him, "If one visits 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani's grave near you, it would be as if he visits Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala."
- Najashi, P. 248
- Mirdamad, P.86
- Sheikh 'Abbas Qumi, Vol.1, P.585
- Mirza Husayn Nuri, khatima mustadrak Vol.4, P.404
- al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-amali, PP.419-20; al-Nisaburi, PP. 31-2
- Mirza Husayn Nuri, mustadrak al-wasa'il, Vol.17, P.321
- 'Adarudi, Musnad al-Imam al-Jawad (a), p. 302.
- al-Turayhi, P.8
- Wa'z Kujuri, Vol.5, P.360
- Najashi, P. 248
- Ibn 'Inaba, P.94
- al-Saduq, thawab al-a'mal, P.99
- The material for this article is mainly taken from عبدالعظیم حسنی in Farsi Wikishia.
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