Imam Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Jawad (a)
|Muhammad b. 'Alī|
9th Shi'a Imam
|Kunya||Abu Ja'far, Abu 'Ali|
|Born||Rajab 10, 195/April 12, 811|
|Imamate||17 years (from Safar 29, 203/September 9, 818)|
|Contemporary Rulers||Al-Ma'mun, al-Mu'tasim|
|Martyrdom||Dhu l-Qa'da 30, 220/November 29, 835 in Kadhimiya, Iraq|
|Predecessor||'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a)|
|Successor||'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hadi (a)|
|Father||'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a)|
|Spouse(s)||Samana, Umm al-Fadl|
|Titles||Abu Ja'far al-Thani, al-Jawad (the generous), al-Taqi (the pious), Ibn al-Rida (Son of al-Rida)|
'Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husayn, al-Sajjad, al-Baqir, al-Sadiq, al-Kazim, al-Rida, al-Jawad, al-Hadi, al-'Askari, al-Mahdi
Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā (Arabic: محمد بن علي بن موسی) known as ʾImām al-Jawād (a) (Arabic: امام الجواد) was the ninth Imam of Twelver Shia, his kunya was Abu Ja'far and he is mentioned in haidth sources as Abu Ja'far al-Thani (the second Abu Ja'far). He (a) was born on Rajab 10, 195/April 12, 811 in Medina and was Imam for 17 years. He was martyred when he (a) was 25 years old and was buried in Kadhimiya beside the grave of his grandfather Musa b. Ja'far (a). He was the youngest Imam when he was martyred.
Because Imam al-Jawad was an 8 year old child, some Shi'a followed 'Abd Allah b. Musa and some others followed Waqifids. But most Shi'a accepted the imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a) due to his scientific superiority. At that time, due to restrictions made for Imam (a), his connections with Shi'a were mostly made through agents.
Scientific debates of Imam al-Jawad (a) in his childhood age with religious scholars of different Islamic sects in theological issues such as the position of caliphs and in jurisprudential issues such as hajj rituals are among well-known debates of Imams (a).
- 1 Lineage, Kunya, and Titles
- 2 Birth
- 3 Wives
- 4 Children
- 5 Imamate
- 6 Debates
- 7 Activities of Sects
- 8 Connection with Shi'as
- 9 Hadiths
- 10 Virtues and Merits
- 11 Martyrdom
- 12 Companions
- 13 Words of Sunni Figures
- 14 Tawassul (Entreaty) to Imam al-Jawad (a)
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
Lineage, Kunya, and Titles
Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Musa b. Ja'far b. Muhammad is the ninth Imam of Twelver Shi'a who is known as al-Jawad and Jawad al-'A'imma. His father Imam al-Rida (a) was the eighth Imam of Twelver Shia. His mother was Sabika from the family of Mariya al-Qibtiyya, the wife of the Holy Prophet (s). In some sources, the name of his mother is mentioned as Khayzuran, Nawbiyya and Rayhana.
His most famous title was al-Jawad and they have mentioned other titles for him such as al-Taqi, al-Murtada, al-Qani', al-Radi, al-Mukhtar, al-Mutawakkil, and al-Muntajab.
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
According to the report of historians, Imam al-Jawad (a) was born in 195/811 in Medina. However, there is a disagreement about the day and month of his birth. Some have regarded Imam's (a) birthday as Ramadan 15/June 15. The famous and unique report is Rajab 10/April 12 which has been mentioned by al-Shaykh al-Tusi in Misbah al-mutahajjid.
Imam al-Jawad (a) was born in last years of Imam al-Rida's (a) life. They have said that before his birth, Imam al-Rida (a) had no children and some enemies spread this rumor that Imam al-Rida (a) is not going to leave any lineage after himself and the chain of imamate will be broken. According to narrative sources, when Imam al-Jawad (a) was born and they brought him to his father; Imam al-Rida (a) said, "This is a child, more blessed than him is not born for our followers." Also, a report narrated by Ibn Asbat and 'Ubbad b. Isma'il said, "We were at the presence of Imam al-Rida (a) that they brought Abu Ja'far (Imam al-Jawad (a)). We asked, 'Is this that blessed child?' Imam al-Rida (a) said, 'This is the child, no more blessed than him is ever born."
Al-Ma'mun al-Abbasi married her daughter, called Umm al-Fadl, to Imam al-Jawad (a) in 202/817-18 or 215/830-1. This marriage took place following the request of al-Ma'mun and Imam (a) expressed his consent with this marriage after specifying the dowry similar to that of Fatima al-Zahra (a) (which was 500 Dirhams). Some sources have said that during Imam al-Rida's (a) stay in Khorasan, Imam al-Jawad (a) went to see him once and that was when al-Ma'mun asked him to marry his daughter. According to Ibn Kathir, the marriage contract of Imam al-Jawad (a) and al-Ma'mun's daughter was made at the time of Imam al-Rida (a) but the marriage ceremony was held in 215/830 in Tikrit, Iraq.
According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Imam al-Jawad (a) had four children with the names, 'Ali (Imam al-Hadi (a)), Musa, Fatima and Amama. However some sources regarded three daughters for Imam (a) with the names of Hakima, Khadija, and Umm Kulthum.
Imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a) was contemporary with two Abbasid caliphs: the first was al-Ma'mun (r. 193/808-9 to 218/833) and Imam (a) spent 23 years of his life at the time of his caliphate. The second was al-Mu'tasim al-Abbasi (r. 218/833 to 227/841-42) two years of his caliphate were contemporary with imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a). Imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a) lasted 17 years from 203/818 until 220/835. After the martyrdom of Imam al-Jawad (a), his son, Imam 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hadi (a) , took responsibility of imamate.
There are many reports and proofs for Imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a) including the report that one of the companions of Imam al-Rida (a) asked about his successor, and Imam al-Rida (a) pointed with his hand towards his son Abu Ja'far (Imam al-Jawad (a)) who was standing in front of him.
In another narration, Imam al-Rida (a) said, "This is Abu Ja'far I have seated in my place and I have left my position to him. We are the family, the children of whom inherit like their old ones." (which means that the same way our old ones inherit and receive knowledge, our children inherit knowledge from the old ones.)
In another report, Imam al-Rida (a) said, 'Abu Ja'far is my successor among my people.'"
Imamate in Childhood
Imam al-Rida (a) was martyred in 203/818 when his son, Imam al-Jawad (a) was only 8 years old and became Imam and this caused disagreement among Shi'a so that some of them followed 'Abd Allah b. Musa b. Ja'far, brother of Imam al-Rida (a); but since they did not want to accept imamate of a person without any reason, some of them asked 'Abd Allah some questions and after they found him unable to answer, they abandoned him. Some other Shi'a joined Waqifids. Nevertheless most of the companions of Imam al-Rida (a) believed in the imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a). According to al-Nawbakhti, the reason of such a division was that they considered the age of puberty as one of the requirements of imamate.
The issue of imamate in childhood was risen by some people at the time of Imam al-Rida (a), and he mentioned the prophet 'Isa (a) [Jesus] and said, "when 'Isa (a) was given prophethood his age was lower than my son". The issue was risen more seriously in after the martyrdom of Imam al-Rida (a) and even some of the close companions of Imam al-Rida (a), like Yunus b. 'Abd al-Rahman, doubted about the imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a). Later the same issue was risen about the imamate of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-Mahdi (a). The answer was from the Qur'an about the prophethood of Prophet Yahya(a) (John), where the Qur'an says: "And We gave him judgment while still a child", and speaking of the Prophet 'Isa (a) (Jesus) in the first days after birth Imam al-Jawad (a) answered to the issue by mentioning the successorship of Prophet Sulayman (a) (Solomon) after Prophet Dawud (a) (David) and said, "When Prophet Solomon (a) was still a little child and took the sheep out for grazing, Prophet David (a) made him his successor."
When Imam al-Jawad (a) became Imam at a young age, some people from Baghdad and other cities went to see him in Medina during hajj. In a meeting they had with 'Abd Allah b. Musa (Imam al-Jawad's (a) uncle), they asked him some questions, but his answers did not seem right and they became disappointed and sad. Then they went to Imam al-Jawad (a) and asked him the same questions and he (a) gave them answers which made them happy, praised Imam (a) and prayed for him.
Debate in the Meeting of al-Ma'mun
Imam al-Jawad's (a) debate with Yahya b. Aktham was among the important debates of Imam (a) which took place at the time of al-Ma'mun al-'Abbasi in Baghdad. According to some Shi'a sources, the cause for happening this debate was al-Ma'mun's proposal for the marriage of Imam (a) with Umm al-Fadl. After Abbasid noblemen were informed of that, they objected to al-Ma'mun. To justify his decision, al-Ma'mun suggested to them to test Imam al-Jawad (a) and they accepted and arranged a debate to test Imam (a).
In the debate, first Yahya mentioned a question about a muhrim (one who perform rituals of hajj) who hunts an animal. Then, Imam (a) explained different aspects of the issue and asked Yahya to define which aspect he meant. Yahya could not answer and the people there were surprised. Then, Imam (a) himself answered the question regarding different aspects. After hearing Imam's (a) complete answer, Abbasid scholars and courtiers admitted to his competence in fiqh. It is said that upon seeing this, al-Ma'mun said, "Praise to God that what I had thought happened."Cite error: Closing
</ref> missing for
<ref> tag .</ref>
Debate about the Two Caliphs
According to Shi'a hadith sources, in a session where al-Ma'mun and many jurists and courtiers were present, Imam al-Jawad (a) had a debate with Yahya b. Aktham about the merits of caliphs (Abu Bakr and 'Umar). Yahya turned to Imam (a) and said, Gabriel conveyed the message of God to the Prophet (s): "Ask Abu Bakr if he is pleased with me? I am pleased with him." Imam (a) answered, I do not reject merits of Abu bakr but anyone who has narrated this hadith needs to pay attention to other hadiths of the Prophet (s) and that he (s) said, "when you receive a hadith from me, present it to the Book of God and my sunna; if it is in agreement with them, accept it and if it is not, do not accept it because liars and forgers of hadiths will increase." Then, Imam (a) continued that this hadith is not in agreement with the Qur'an because the Qur'an says, 'We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.' (50:16) Then, was not God aware of Abu bakr's satisfaction that had to ask him?"
Then, Yahya asked about this hadith which said, "Abu bakr and 'Umar on the earth are like Gabriel and Michael in the skies." Imam (a) answered, "this hadith is not true because Gabriel and Michael have always served God and have not committed a sin while Abu bakr and 'Umar have long been polytheist before they become Muslims."
Cutting the Hand of a Thief
When Imam (a) was living in Baghdad, events happened which promoted the position of Imam (a) among people such as his ruling about thieves. Once there was a disagreement over the question that from where the hand of a thief has to be cut; some said that it needs to be cut from wrist and some said that it needs to be cut from elbow. Al-Mu'tasim, the Abbasid caliph asked Imam al-Jawad (a) to give his opinion in this regard. After caliph insisted, Imam (a) said, "Only the four fingers of a thief have to be cut and the rest of his hand needs to remain. He referred to the following verse of the Qur'an as his reason, "The places of sajda belong to Allah, so do not invoke anyone along with Allah." (72:18) Al-Mu'tasim liked Imam's (a) answer and ordered to follow his ruling.
Activities of Sects
Like the time of other Imams (a), at the time of Imam al-Jawad (a), there were sects which were active in different fields and tried to promote their thoughts and beliefs in the society and draw away Shi'a from their authentic beliefs.
People of Hadith
People of hadith were among such sects who believed in the incarnation of God. To guard authentic Shi'a beliefs, Imam al-Jawad (a) rejected connection with them and ordered Shi'a not to pray behind them and not pay zakat to them.
- Main article: Waqifids
Waqifids were another active sect contemporary with Imam al-Jawad (a) who stopped over imamate of Imam Musa b. Ja'far (a) and did not accept imamate of Imam al-Rida (a). When Imam al-Jawad (a) was asked about praying behind Waqifids, he (a) prohibited Shi'a from doing so.
- Main article: Zaydiyya
Zaidiyya were among other groups contemporary with Imam al-Jawad (a) who had originally branched from Shi'a. There are some hadiths narrated from Imam al-Jawad (a) in which Imam (a) blames Zaydiyya.
Connection with Shi'as
Through appointing agents in different parts of the Islamic world, Imam al-Jawad (a) was connected with Shi'as. That he (a) was not connected with Shi'a directly and benefited from agents had some reasons, one was that Imam (a) was under serious surveillance and control of ruling government and another was that he (a) wanted to make preparations for the Occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a).
Also, the connection of Shi'a with Imam (a) was through sending letters (See: tawqi'). Much of the teachings remained from Imam al-Jawad (a) are mentioned in his letters to Shi'as. In their letters, Shi'as mentioned their questions which were mostly jurisprudential issues and Imam (a) answered them. In most cases, the name of the one who has written letter to Imam (a) is mentioned and few cases, the name of the author is not mentioned.
In Mawsu'at al-Imam al-Jawad (a), except the names the father and son of Imam al-Jawad (a), the names of 63 people with whom Imam (a) had correspondences are collected from hadith and rijal sources; however, some letters have been written to a group of Shi'as.
Imam al-Jawad (a) also wrote some letters to his agents in different cities such as Hamadan and Bost and also some Shi'as of Iran went to visit him in Medina. These visits are in addition to visits which took place during the days of hajj between Imam (a) and Shi'as.
Since Imam al-Jawad (a) was martyred at the age of 25 and also he (a) was under surveillance and pressure of the government, he (a) did not have much time to promote Shi'a beliefs. However, even in this short period, he (a) made great efforts for educating students and explaining hadiths about jurisprudence, exegesis, theology, and supplication. What we have received from his time is around 250 hadiths in different Islamic fields.
Virtues and Merits
Numerous merits have been reported for Imam al-Jawad (a) in different sources among the most important of which is his superiority in debates and scientific discussions with his contemporary scholars while he was a child. Examples of such merits were mentioned in previous sections. Numerous acts of wonder have also been reported about Imam al-Jawad (a) including:
Acceptance of Prayer
Dawud b. al-Qasim said, "One day, I went with Imam al-Jawad (a) to a garden. I told him, 'May I be sacrificed for you! I am greedy to eat mud. Please make a du'a for me!' (so that I give up this habit). Imam (a) did not answer and some days later, he (a) told me, 'O Abu Hashim! God removed [the habit of] eating mud from you.'" Abu Hashim says that, "Since then, there was nothing I hated more than mud."
Fertility of Trees
Upon the return of Imam al-Jawad (a) from Baghdad to Medina, a group of people accompanied Imam (a) out of Medina to see him off. By the time of maghrib prayer, they arrived in a place where an old mosque was located. Imam (a) went to that mosque to say his prayer. There was a cedar tree in the yard of that mosque which had not yielded any fruits until that time. Imam (a) asked for some water and made wudu beside that tree and then led a congregational prayer there and after the prayer made a sajda of gratitude. He (a) then said goodbye to people and went away. The next day, the tree yielded so much fruit and people became so surprised of that. It is narrated from al-Shaykh al-Mufid that he has seen this tree many years later and has eaten from its fruits.
Imam al-Jawad (a) went to Baghdad twice following the request of his two contemporary caliphs. The first trip at the time of al-Ma'mun was not long. Al-Mu'tasim, the Abbasid caliph summoned Imam al-Jawad (a) from Medina to Baghdad. On Muharram 28, 220/February 5, 835, Imam (a) entered Baghdad and passed away in Dhu l-Qa'da/November of the same year at the age of 25 and was buried beside his grandfather Imam al-Kazim (a) in Kadhimiya.
About the cause of his martyrdom, it is said that Ibn Abi Duwad, the judge of Baghdad slandered against Imam (a) after Imam's (a) opinion about cutting the hand of a thief was accepted and Ibn Abi Duwad and many other jurists and courtiers were discredited. After caliph was influenced by the words of the judge, he decided to kill Imam (a). Al-Mu'tasim used one of his ministers and poisoned Imam (a) and martyred him. However, some believe that Imam (a) was poisoned by Umm al-Fadl, daughter of al-Mu'mun.
Al-Shaykh al-Mufid (d. 413/1022) said, "Even though some have said that Imam (a) was martyred by poison; however, this has not been proved to me so that I can swear about it." But al-Mas'udi (d. 346/957) said, "al-Mu'tasim and Ja'far b. al-Ma'mun (brother of Umm al-Fadl, wife of Imam al-Jawad (a)) were always thinking about killing Imam (a). Since Imam (a) did not have any child from Umm al-Fadl and his son 'Ali (a) was from his other wife, Ja'far induced his sister to poison Imam (a). This way, they poisoned grapes and Imam (a) ate from them." Al-Mas'udi continues that afterwards, Umm al-Fadl became so regretful of her work and cried so much and Imam (a) cursed her and she was afflicted with a severe illness."
- See also: List of Companions of Imam al-Jawad (a)
Many of his companions who were also among the companions of his father and his son (Imam al-Hadi (a)) had written works in fiqh and theology and were known as influential people in their own communities. Companions of Imam al-Jawad (a) and narrators of his hadiths were about 120 people who have narrated about 250 hadiths from him. These hadiths are about different subjects in fiqh, exegesis and theology. The small number of hadiths narrated from Imam al-Jawad (a) is due to his surveillance and his young age at the time of martyrdom. Among his famous companions are 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani, Ibrahim b. Hashim al-Qummi, 'Ali b. Mahziyar, Ahmad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti, Zakariyya b. Adam, Muhammad b. Isma'il b. Bazi', al-Hasan b. Sa'id al-Ahwazi and Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Barqi. His companions and narrators of his hadiths were not exclusive to Shi'a and there were people from other sects including Sunni sects among them as well.
Words of Sunni Figures
Imam al-Jawad's (a) scientific dialogues and debates at the time of the government of al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim which solved many scientific problems and issues in fiqh made Islamic scholars and researchers including Shi'a and Sunni ones surprised so that many of them considered Imam (a) an outstanding figure and praised him. They mentioned his knowledge, piety, and generosity. some of them believe that al-Ma'mun chose him to become his son-in-law because even with being young, he was superior to all scholars in knowledge and forbearance. Jahiz 'Uthman, the mu'tazili scholar, has mentioned him as knowledgeable, pious, worshiping, brave, generous, pure, with pure origin."
Tawassul (Entreaty) to Imam al-Jawad (a)
According to consults of some Shi'a scholars, some Shi'as make tawassul to Imam al-Jawad (a) for increase in their daily sustenance and solution of their material problems and call him Bab al-Hawa'ij [Gate of Requests]. An example of such consults is quoted by the Second Majlisi from Abu l-Wafa' Shirazi who claimed that the Prophet (s) advised him in his dream to make Tawassul to Imam al-Jawad (a) in material issues.[Note 1]
- Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, p. 396
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 315, 492; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 1; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 379.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 315, 492; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 1.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 379; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 12, 13.
- Ashʿarī, Kitāb al-maqālāt wa al-firaq, p. 99; Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, p. 201.
- Ṭūsī, Misbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p. 805
- Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 20, 23, 35.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī, vol. 7, p. 149.
- Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 223.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 382.
- Bayhaqī, Tārīkh-i Bayhaq, p. 46.
- Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 10, p. 295.
- Qummī, Muntahā l-āmāl, vol. 2, p. 497.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 380.
- Qummī, Muntahā l-āmāl, vol. 2, p. 497.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 284.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 380.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 265.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 266.
- Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 2, p. 586.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 383.
- Nawbakhtī, Firaq, al-Shīʿa, p. 77-78.
- Nawbakhtī, Firaq, al-Shīʿa, p. 88.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 322.
- Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 220
- Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 472.
- Qurān, 19:12.
- Qurān, 19:30-32.
- See: Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 383.
- Ṭabarī, Dalāʾil al-imāma, p. 205-206; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 99-100.
- Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 446-447.
- Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, p. vol. 2, p. 447.
- ʿAyyāshī, Kitāb al-tafsīr, vol. 1, p. 319-320; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 5-6.
- Ṣadūq, al-Tawḥīd, p. 101; Ṭūsī, al-Tahdhīb, vol. 3, p. 283 quoted from Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 603.
- Ṭūsī, Man lā yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, quoted from Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī wa sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 603.
- ʿAṭārudī, Musnad al-Imām al-Jawād, p. 150.
- Jāsim, Tārīkh-i sīyāsī-yi ghaybat-i Imām Dawāzdahum, p. 79.
- See: Jaʿfarīyān, Ḥayāt-i fikrī wa sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa, p. 603.
- For example refer to Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 399; vol. 4, p. 275, 534; vol. 5, p. 347; Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 783, 869.
- Mawsūʾat al-Imām al-Jawād (a), vol. 2, p. 416, 508.
- Cf. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 331, 398; vol. 5, p. 394; vol, p. 163; Kashshī, Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl, p. 783, 869.
- ʿAṭārudī, Musnad al-Imām al-Jawād, p. 249.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 390; Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 278.
- See: Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 380.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 295.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 4, p. 379; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, p. 12, 13.
- Ibn Abī l-Thalj, Tārīkh al-Aʾimma, p. 13.
- Ashʿarī, Kitāb al-maqālāt wa al-firaq, p. 99; Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā, vol. 2, p. 106.
- ʿAyyāshī, Kitāb al-tafsīr, vol. 1, p. 320.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 296.
- Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 227.
- ʿAṭārudī, Musnad al-Imām al-Jawād, p. 314, 315, 262, 283, 319, 271.
- Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 321.
- Haythamī, al-Ṣawāʿiq al-muḥriqa, p. 288.
- ʿĀmilī, al-Ḥayāt al-sīyāsīyya li-l-Imām al-Jawād, p. 137.
- Rāwandī, Daʿwāt al-Rāwandī, p. 191; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 91; 35.
- Al-'Allama al-Majlisi narrated from Abu l-Wafa', "I was once arrested by son of Ilyas, governor of Kerman and was imprisoned for a while. After a while, I recognized that they are plotting for killing me. I was worried and did not know what to do to free from such a plot. One night I made entreaty to Imam al-Sajjad (a) while I was praying before God and I asked God for freedom. Instantly I fall asleep and I dreamed the Prophet (s) who said, 'Do not make entreaty to me, my daughter, al-Hasan, al-Husayn or others; but for the increase of daily sustenance and solving problems make entreaty to my son al-Jawad (a), through whom God will answer your request. Rāwandī, Daʿwāt al-Rāwandī, p. 191; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 91; 35.'"
- ʿĀmilī, al-Sayyid Jaʿfar al-Murtaḍā al-. Al-Ḥayāt al-sīyāsīyya li-l-Imām al-Jawād. Third edition. Beirut: al-Markaz al-Islāmī li-l-Dirāsāt, 1425 AH.
- Ashʿarī, Saʿd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Kitāb al-maqālāt wa al-firaq. Tehran: Markaz-i Intishārāt-i ʿIlmī wa Farhangī, 1361 Sh.
- ʿAṭārudī, ʿAzīz Allāh. Musnad al-Imām al-Jawād. Qom: al-Muʾtamar al-ʿĀlamī li-l-Imām al-Riḍā, 1410 AH.
- ʿAyyāshī, Muḥammad b. Masʿūd al-. Kitāb al-tafsīr. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī Maḥallātī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-ʿIlmīyya al-Islāmīyya, 1380 AH.
- Bayhaqī, ʿAlī b. Zayd. Tārīkh-i Bayhaq. Edited by Aḥmad Bahmanyār. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Furūghī, 1361 Sh.
- Fattāl al-Nayshābūrī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-. Rawḍat al-wāʿiẓīn. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1375 Sh.
- Haythamī, Aḥmad b. Ḥajar al-. Al-Ṣawāʿiq al-muḥriqa. Istanbul: Maktabat al-Ḥaqīqa, 1424 AH.
- Ibn Abī l-Thalj. Tārīkh al-Aʾimma. Qom: Kitābkhānih Āyat Allāh al-Marʿashī, 1406 AH.
- Ibn Kathīr. Al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1408 AH.
- Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Edited by Ḥāshim Rasūlī. Qom: Nashr-i ʿAllāma, n.d.
- Jaʿfarīyān, Rasūl. Ḥayāt-i fikrī wa sīyāsī-yi Imāmān-i Shīʿa. Third edition. Tehran: Nashr-i ʿIlm, 1393 Sh.
- Jāsim, Ḥusayn. Tārīkh-i sīyāsī-yi ghaybat-i Imām Dawāzdahum. Translated Muḥammad Taqī Āyat Allhī. Tehran: Muʾassisi-yi Intishārāt-i Amīr Kabīr, 1386 Sh.
- Kashshī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Ikhtīyār maʿrifat al-rijāl. Edited by Muḥammad Rajāʾī. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1404 AH.
- Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Translated by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407AH.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Third edition. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
- Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Ithbāt al-waṣīyya. Third edition. Qom: Muʾassisat Anṣārīyān, 1426 AH.
- Mawsūʾat al-Imām al-Jawād. Qom: Muʾassisat Walī al-ʿAṣr(a), 1419 AH.
- Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād. Translated by Hāshim Rasūlī. Second edition. Qom: Intishārāt-i ʿIlmī-yi Islāmī, 1413 AH.
- Nawbakhtī, Ḥasan b. Mūsā al-. Firaq, al-Shīʿa. Edited by Muḥammad Ṣādiq Baḥr al-ʿUlūm. Najaf: Maktabat al-Murtaḍawīyya, 1355 AH.
- Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Muntahā l-āmāl. Seventeenth edtion. Qom: Muʾassisat Intishārāt-i Hijrat, 1386 Sh.
- Rāwandī, Saʿīd b. Hibat Allāh. Daʿwāt al-Rāwandī. Qom: Manshūrāt Madrisat al-Imām al-Mahdī, 1407 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā. Translated by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Tehran: Nashr-i Ṣadūq, 1373 Sh.
- Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī, Yūsuf b. Qazāwughlī. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ. Qom: al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1418 AH.
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Dalāʾil al-imāma. Qom: Dār al-Dhakhāʾir, 1383 AH.
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-Ṭabarī. Fourth edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1403 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Iḥtijāj. Mashhad: Nashr al-Murtaḍā, 1403 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Iʿlām al-warā bi-aʿlām al-hudā. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1417 AH.
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan. Misbāḥ al-mutahajjid. Qom: Maktaba al-Islamīyya.