'Abd Allah al-Aftah
- This article is about a son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a). For other people named 'Abd Allah b. Jafar, see 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far (disambiguation).
|'Abd Allah al-Aftah|
|Role||claimed imamate after Imam al-Sadiq (a)|
|Epithet||'Abd Allah al-Aftah|
|Father||Imam al-Sadiq (a)|
|Mother||Fatima bt. Husayn b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a)|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina|
|Demise||Muharram, 149/February 766. [70 days after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a)]|
ʿAbd Allah b. Jaʿfar (Arabic: عبدالله بن جعفر); (d. 149/766) known as ʿAbd Allah al-Afṭaḥ (عبدالله الافطَح) was the second son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) who claimed imamate after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and his followers became famous as Fatahiyya. Some of those who followed 'Abd Allah soon left him due to his lack of religious knowledge. 'Abd Allah died 70 days after claiming imamate and since he did not have any children, the rest of his followers turned to Imam al-Kazim (a) for their matters.
'Abd Allah was the second son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) (after Isma'il). His mother was daughter of Husayn b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn b. Ali (a). He was known as 'Abd Allah Aftah because of having wide toes.
According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, the position of 'Abd Allah before his father was not like his other brothers because he was against his father in beliefs. He also associated with Hashwiyya and tended toward Murji'a.
'Abd Allah had no children, but in some Isma'ili and other sources, it has been said that instead of Isma'il, Fatimid caliphs introduced his brother, 'Abd Allah Aftah as their imam and their ancestor, but later changed their manner and introduced Isma'il as their imam.
'Abd Allah died 70 days after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a).
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
Progeny of the Prophet (s)
Upon the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a), 'Abd Allah was his eldest son. With this justification that imamate reaches the eldest son of Imam, claimed imamate and soon some Shia followed him. It is narrated that before his martyrdom, Imam al-Sadiq (a) foresaw about claiming imamate by 'Abd Allah and advised Imam al-Kazim (a) to leave 'Abd Allah, because he would die soon afterwards.
His Incompetence in answering Questions of the Companions
It is mentioned that Shia and companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) asked 'Abd Allah some questions to ensure about his claim, but he could not give proper answers and thus many Shia left him. These questions have been mentioned in different sources, for example Some Shia from Khurasan came to Medina after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a) and asked some questions from 'Abd Allah but he could not answer them.
Hisham b. Salim and Mu'min al-Taq asked him about Zakat of 100 Dirhams. He answered two dirhams. It is reported that he was asked, "if someone tell his wife, without having a witness, 'I have divorced from you by as many times as the number of stars in the sky', would it be correct?" He answered, "the divorce is correct."
- Main article: Fatahiyya
When 'Abd Allah claimed imamate, some Shia followed him and were known as Fatahiyya. At the time of Imam al-Sadiq (a), it was commonly said among Shias that the eldest son reaches the position of imamate. Accordingly, some who did not hear about Imam al-Sadiq's (a) declaration of Imam al-Kazim's imamate, followed 'Abd Allah who was the elder brother and had claimed imamate. When he died 70 days after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq (a), the rest of his followers returned to Imam al-Kazim (a).
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 210.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 209.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 211.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 211.
- Ibn Hazm, Jamhara 'ansab al-'arab, p. 59.
- Ibn Ḥazm, Jamharat ansāb al-ʿarab, p. 59.
- Qāḍī Nuʿmān, Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, p. 310.
- Masʿūdī, Ithbāt al-waṣīyya, p. 198.
- Nūrī, Mustadrak al-Wasāʾil, vol. 15, p. 467.
- Nabāṭī al-Bayāḍī, al-Ṣirāt al-mustaqīm,vol.2, p. 191.
- Nabāṭī al-Bayāḍī, al-Ṣirāt al-mustaqīm, vol. 2, p. 192.
- Subḥānī, Buhūth fī l-milal wa l-niḥal, vol. 8, p. 78.
- Shahristānī, al-Milal wa l-niḥal, vol. 1, p. 148.
- Ibn Ḥazm al-Āndulusī, ʿAlī b. Aḥmad al-. Jamharat ansāb al-ʿarab. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1418 AH.
- Masʿūdī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Ithbāt al-waṣīyya. Qom: Anṣārīyān, 1426 AH.
- Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh Mufīd, 1413 AH.
- Nabāṭī al-Bayāḍī, ʿAlī b. Yūnus al-. Al-Ṣirāt al-mustaqīm. Najaf: al-Maktaba al-Murtaḍawīyya, 1384 AH.
- Nūrī, Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad Taqī al-. Mustadrak al-Wasāʾil. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1408 AH.
- Qāḍī Nuʿmān al-Maghribī. Sharḥ al-akhbār fī faḍāʾil al-aʾimma al-aṭhār. Qom: Daftar-i Nashr-i Islāmī, 1409 AH.
- Shahristānī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm. Al-Milal wa l-niḥal. Fourth edition. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1415 AH.
- Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. Buhūth fī l-milal wa l-niḥal. Qom: Muʾassisat Imām al-Ṣādiq, 1418 AH.