'Abd Allah b. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)
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|'Abd Allah b. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Father||Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Place of Burial||Holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)|
ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Tālib (Arabic: عبدالله بن حسین بن علی بن ابی طالب) (b.? - d.61/681) best known as 'Ali al-Asghar (Arabic: علي الاصغر) [literally: the younger 'Ali] and 'Abd Allah al-Radi' (Arabic: عبدالله الرَضيع) [Literally: suckling 'Abd Allah"] was the youngest child of Imam al-Husayn (a) and his mother was Rubab.
There is no consensus on the exact date of his birth but most historical references have mentioned that he was recently born when he was martyred on the Day of 'Ashura (61/681). He is buried in Karbala next to the tomb of Imam al-Husayn (a).
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
|Mourning of Muharram|
The books Maqtal al-Husayn by Akhtab Kharazm and Manaqib Al Abi Talib by Ibn Shahrashub are two of the above-mentioned later Shi'a sources which have mentioned the youngest son of Imam al-Husayn (a) as 'Ali. Later sources followed them in calling This infant 'Ali al-Asghar (a) (especially in Persian sources).
There are different narrations about how he (a) was martyred on the Day of 'Ashura. It is narrated that when all Imam al-Husayn's (a) companions were martyred and before he (a) went to the battle field, he (a) came to the tents and embraced 'Ali al-Asghar and when he (a) was kissing the child suddenly a soldier from Banu Asad tribe threw an arrow towards the child's neck and killed him. The murderer's name was Harmala b. Kahil.
Some other narrators stated that Lady Zaynab (a) brought 'Abd Allah to Imam al-Husayn (a) and asked for water for 'Abd Allah. Imam (a) took his child in the front of the army and said, "O people! You murdered my household and all my companions except this thirsty newborn child who is dying! Give him some water!" While he (a) was speaking with them, suddenly a soldier threw an arrow towards 'Ali al-Asghar and made him martyred.
But the most reliable narration is quoted by Ibn al-Jawzi from Hisham b. Kalbi who said when Imam al-Husayn (a) saw that Kufan army persisted to kill him, took the Qur'an on his head addressing them, "This book of the Qur'an and the Prophet Muhammad (s) will judge between me and you. Oh, people! How do you assume killing me lawful?"
At this time, Imam (a) saw one of his children was crying of thirst; thus he (a) took him on his hand and said, 'O People! If you show no mercy to me; Have mercy on this thirsty child!" At this moment, someone from Kufan army threw an arrow towards 'Ali al-Asghar.
Imam al-Husayn (a) cried hard and said, "O God! Judge between us and the people who invited us to help us but they killed us!" Then, Imam al-Husayn (a) took his hand under Abd Allah's neck and when his hand filled with blood, threw it all up to sky. Then, Imam al-Husayn (a) said, "what makes all these hardships easy for me is the fact that all of this is happened in the presence of God." It is narrated from Imam al-Baqir (a) that none of that blood returned down or poured on earth.
Imam al-Husayn (a) returned the body of 'Ali al-Asghar to the tents for burying.
Some historians have mentioned that after the martyrdom of Ali al-Asghar (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) said, "O God! The martyrdom of this child is not less importance of martyrdom of Naqa Salih (camel of the Prophet Salih (a)) before You! So, if today, You have prevented us from the victory, assign better things for us!"
It is narrated that Imam al-Husayn (a) dug a grave using his sword and buried Ali al-Asghar (a). But, some historians mentioned that he (a) took the bloodstained body back to tents and gave it to his honorable sister Zaynab (s). Also, it is mentioned that Imam (a) put the body next to bodies of other martyrs.
Many Shi'as call 'Ali al-Asghar (a), Bab al-Hawa'ij [Door to Invocations]. This shows that in their view although at the time of martyrdom he was an infant but he has a very high position before God.
- The material for this article is mainly adopted from عبدالله بن حسین in Farsi WikiShia.