Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. al-Hasan

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Descendant of Imam
Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. al-Hasan
Role Leadr of the first upraising against Abbasid
Well-Known As Al-Nafs al-Zakiyya
Father 'Abd Allah Mahd
Mother Hind bt. Abi Ubaydat
Birth 100/718
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Demise 145/762
Place of Burial Baqi' cemetery, Medina
Age 45

Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḥasan (Arabic:محمد بن عبدالله بن حسن) (b. 100/718 - d. 145/762) known as al-Nafs al-Zakiyya (النفس الزکیّه) was descendant of Imam al-Hasan (a). He was the first 'Alavi who revolted against Abbasid.

His father, 'Abd Allah al-Mahd entitled his son as Mahdi, and asked people to take oath of allegiance to him. Banu Abbas took oath of allegiance to him in the beginning, but after the fall of Umayyads they took charge of caliphate and opposed Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. Then he rebelled against Mansur, the Abbasid caliph, and consequently he was murdered along with his companions. Imam al-Sadiq (a) did not accept to take oath of allegiance to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah because he called himself Mahdi.

Birth and Lineage

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
Idris
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
 
Musa
 
 
 
 
Fatima
 
 
 
Hakima
 
 
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 

Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. Hasan b. al-Hasan who was entitled as Al-Nafs al-Zakiyya was born in 100/718-9. 'Abd Allah, his father, was the son of Al-Hasan al-Muthna the grandson of Imam al-Hasan (a). Hind, his mother, was the daughter of Abi Ubaydat b. 'Abd Allah b. Zam'a. Because none of his paternal and maternal ancestors were ever a slave, and they were all from Quraysh tribe, he was called as Sarih (the purest, in terms of unmixed origins) of Quraysh.

Allegiance to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah

After the uprising of Yahya b. Zayd which led to his martyrdom, his followers and supporters who wanted to rebel against Umayyads including Alavis, came to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. 'Abd Allah b. Hasan, his father, asked his relatives and supports in Abwa' region near Medina to take oath of allegiance to his son in around 126/743-4. He introduced his son as the promised "Mahdi" and he managed to bring a lot of them to take oath of allegiance.

According to historical reports, Abbasid brothers Ibrahim, Saffah and Mansur also took oath of allegiance to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. However some reports mentioned that only Mansur took the oath.

In the View of Imam al-Sadiq (a)

Imam al-Sadiq (a) opposed the allegiance in Abwa', as some reports mentioned that his disagreement to allegiance to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah was because Muhammad regarded himself as the promised Mahdi. Imam (a) believed that it was not the right time for Mahdi (a) to be appeared and Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah did not have the characteristics of the promised Mahdi.

The other reason for disagreement of Imam (a) was that he knew Banu Abbas would break their oath of allegiance to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah, and their purpose of taking the oath to him was get close to Alavis and prepare situation for themselves to achieve power and caliphate.

A number of historians also mentioned that Imam al-Sadiq (a) similar to his father, Imam al-Baqir (a), disagreed with rebels. He was practicing the cultural Shi'ism attitude which was in contrary to political Shi'ism attitude that Zaydis and Alavis were practicing.

However some reports mentioned that the only reason Imam al-Sadiq (a) disagreed with taking oath of allegiance to Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah was that he called himself the promised Mahdi. Also Imam (a) did not oppose the rebel of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah against tyranny and practicing enjoying the good and forbidding the evil.

The Rise of Al-Nafs al-Zakiyya

Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah known as Al-Nafs al-Zakiyya rebelled against Mansur, the Abbasid caliph, in Medina in 145/762-3. Faqihs and hadith scholars of Medina including the non-Shi'ites favored Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah over Mansur and advised people to support him, they even regarded the unwilling oaths of allegiance taken to Mansur invalid.

When Abbasids soldiers besieged Medina, people became scared of drought and they left Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya.

Demise

Finally when Abbasid soldiers entered the city, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah was slayed by Hamdi b. Quhtaba in Ihjar al-Ziyat region in Medina. Then he was beheaded and his head was sent to different cities. His body was buried in Al-Baqi' Cemetery.

Muhammadism

A number of the authors of the book Al-Milal wa al-Nihal stated on the event of the death of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah: "After the execution of Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah, Mughira b. Sa'id al-'Ajali and his supporters claimed that Al-Nafs al-Zakiyya is not deceased but he is in occultation in Hajar Mountain in Najd region and he will re-appear. Those who believe Al-Nafs al-Zakiyya is the promised Mahdi and he will re-appear are called Muhammadist Shi'ites."

References