Fatima bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)
- This article is about a daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a). For other people named Fatima, see Fatima (disambiguation).
|Fatima bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Father||Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina|
|Spouse(s)||Al-Hasan al-Muthanna, 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr b. 'Uthman b. 'Affan|
|Children||'Abd Allah, Ibrahim, al-Hasan, and Zaynab from al-Hasan al-Muthanna; Muhammad al-Dibaj, Qasim, and Ruqayya from 'Abd Allah|
|Place of Burial||Medina|
Fāṭima bt. al-Ḥusayn (Arabic: فاطمة بنت الحسین), was the eldest daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a) and her mother was Umm Ishaq. She was present in Karbala, and, according to a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) gave her the trusts of Imamate and his written will for safekeeping, and she later delivered them to Imam al-Sajjad (a).
Lineage and Birth
Her exact date of birth is not known, but because her mother was first, married to Imam al-Hasan (a) and then, after his martyrdom, married Imam al-Husayn (a), her birth must have been after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a), probably around 51/671.
|Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)|
Marriage with al-Hasan al-Muthanna
Before the Tragedy of Karbala, Fatima married her cousin al-Hasan al-Muthanna, the son of Imam al-Hasan (a). It is reported that after her husband passed away, she mourned on his grave for one year, fasting during the day and praying at night. According to a hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari, Fatima built a mausoleum over the grave of her husband.
Presence in Karbala and Captivity
|Mourning of Muharram|
Fatima was present in Karbala together with her husband, who was one of the injured in that incident. Together with the other members of Imam al-Husayn's (a) family, Fatima was taken to Kufa and then to Damascus as a captive. She is the narrator for some of tragic incidents in Karbala and afterwards. There was an exchange of words between her and Yazid at the latter's court. Ahmad b. Ali al-Tabrisi has recorded her debates with the people of Kufa.
Marriage with Abd Allah b. Amr
After al-Hasan al-Muthanna passed away, Fatima married with Abd Allah b. Amr b. Uthman b. Affan. When Abd Allah passed away, Abd al-Rahman b. Dahhak, the governor of Medina, proposed to her, but she refused.
According to Sibt b. al-Jawzi, her demise was around 117/735. Without mentioning her exact date of demise, Ibn Hibban has mentioned that she passed away at the age of 90. Ibn Asakir reports that her demise occurred during the reign of Hisham b. Abd al-Malik. She passed away in Medina.
She had four children from al-Hasan al-Muthanna: Abd Allah, Ibrahim, al-Hasan, and Zaynab. Her children from her second husband Abd Allah b. Amr were Muhammad al-Dibaj, Qasim, and Ruqayya. Most of her descendants were killed or imprisoned because of their opposition to Abbasid caliphate.
Custodian of the Trusts of Imamate
Narration of Hadith
Fatima was one of the Tabi'un and transmitters of hadith. She Transmitted hadith from her figures including her father Imam al-Husayn (a), her grandmother Lady Fatima (a), her aunt Lady Zaynab (a), his brother Imam al-Sajjad (a), Asma' bt. Umays, Abd Allah b. Abbas, Bilal, and Aisha. Fatima has been regarded as a trustworthy transmitter from the fourth level of transmitters.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 491; Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 45, p. 329; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 214.
- Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn (a), vol. 1, p. 351.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 473; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 17; Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 213.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 26; Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 19
- Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1, p. 446.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 25, 121.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 491; Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 4, p. 86.
- Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 121; Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 164.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 5, p. 464.
- Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 272.
- Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 256; Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn, p. 167.
- Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 474.
- Ibn al-Jawzī, Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ, p. 251.
- Ibn Ḥibbān, Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 5, p. 301.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 17.
- Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 256.
- Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 199; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 256.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 7, p. 536.
- Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 303.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Damascus, vol. 70, p. 10; Mizzī, Tahdhīb al-kamāl, vol. 35, p. 254-255.
- ʿAsqalānī, Taqrīb al-madhāhib, vol. 2, p. 657.
- Abū l-Faraj al-Isfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-ṭālibīyyīn. Edited by Kāẓim al-Muẓaffar. Najaf: al-Maktaba al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1385 AH.
- Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1410 AH.
- Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Damascus. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
- Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1965.
- Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Taqrīb al-tahdhīb, Damascus: Dār al-Rashīd, 1412 AH.
- Ibn Ḥibbān, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad. Ṣaḥīḥ Ibn Ḥibbān, Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, 1414 AH.
- Ibn Qutayba, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muslim. Al-Maʿārif. Edited by Muḥammad Ismāʿīl ʿAbd Allāh al-Ṣāwī. Beirut: [n.p], 1390 AH.
- Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dār Beirut: 1405 AH.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
- Mizzī, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-. Tahdhīb al-kamāl fī asmāʿ al-rijāl. Edited by Bashshār ʿAwwād al-Maʿrūf. Beirut: [n.p], 1405 AH.
- Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allāh ʿalā l-ʿibād. Qom: Kungira-yi Shaykh al-Mufīd, 1413 AH.
- Muḥammadī Riyshahrī, Muḥammad. Dānishnāma-yi Imām Ḥusayn. Qom: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1380 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Amālī. Tehran: Nashr-i Kitābchī, 1376 Sh.
- Sibṭ b. al-Jawzī, Yūsuf. Tadhkirat al-khawāṣ. Qom: Manshūrāt al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1418 AH.
- Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Turāth, 1387 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iḥtijāj ʿalā ahl al-lijāj. Edited by Ibrāhīm Bahādurī. Qom: Nashr-i Uswa, 1416 AH.