Fatima bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)

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This article is about a daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a). For other people named Fatima, see Fatima (disambiguation).
Descendant of Imam
Fatima bt. al-Imam al-Husayn (a)
Name Fatima bt. al-Husayn
Father Imam al-Husayn (a)
Mother Umm Ishaq
Birth Around 51/671
Place of Birth Medina
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Spouse(s) Al-Hasan al-Muthanna, 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr b. 'Uthman b. 'Affan
Children 'Abd Allah, Ibrahim, al-Hasan, and Zaynab from al-Hasan al-Muthanna; Muhammad al-Dibaj, Qasim, and Ruqayya from 'Abd Allah
Demise Around 117/735
Place of Burial Medina

Fāṭima bt. al-Ḥusayn (Arabic: فاطمة بنت الحسین), also known as Fāṭima al-Suaghrā, was the eldest daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a) and her mother was Umm Ishaq. She was present in Karbala, and, according to a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) gave her the trusts of Imamate and his written will for safekeeping, and she later delivered them to Imam al-Sajjad (a).

Lineage

Her father was Imam al-Husayn b. 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and her mother was Umm Ishaq, the daughter of Talha b. 'Ubayd Allah.

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
Idris
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
 
Musa
 
 
 
 
Fatima
 
 
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Birth

Her exact date of birth is not known, but because her mother was first married to Imam al-Hasan (a) and then, after his martyrdom, married Imam al-Husayn (a), her birth must have been after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a), probably around 51/671.

Characteristics

It is reported that her face was very similar to that of her grandmother, Lady Fatima (a), the daughter of the Prophet (s).

Marriage with al-Hasan al-Muthanna

Before the Tragedy of Karbala, Fatima married her cousin al-Hasan al-Muthanna, the son of Imam al-Hasan (a). It is reported that after her husband passed away, she would mourn on his grave for one year, fasting during the day and praying at nights. According to a hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari, Fatima built a mausoleum over the grave of her husband.

Presence in Karbala and Captivity

Fatima was present in the Tragedy of Karbala together with her husband, who was one of the injured in that incident. Together with the other members of Imam al-Husayn's (a) family, Fatima was taken to Kufa and then to Damascus as a captive. She is the narrator for some of tragic incidents in Karbala and afterwards. There was an exchange of words between her and Yazid at the latter's court. Ahmad b. 'Ali al-Tabrisi has recorded her debates with the people of Kufa.

Marriage with 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr

After al-Hasan al-Muthanna passed away, Fatima married with 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr b. 'Uthman b. 'Affan. When 'Abd Allah passed away, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Dahhak, the governor of Medina, proposed to her, but she refused.

Demise

According to Sibt b. al-Jawzi, her demise was around 117/735. Without mentioning her exact date of demise, Ibn Hibban has mentioned that she passed away at the age of 90. Ibn 'Asakir reports that her demise occurred during the reign of Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik. She passed away in Medina.

Children

She had four children from al-Hasan al-Muthanna: 'Abd Allah, Ibrahim, al-Hasan, and Zaynab. Her children from her second husband 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr were Muhammad al-Dibaj, Qasim, and Ruqayya. Most of her descendants were killed or imprisoned because of their opposition to Abbasid caliphate.

Custodian of the Trusts of Imamate

According to a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a), before his martyrdom, Imam al-Husayn (a) gave the trusts of Imamate to Fatima for safekeeping.

Narration of Hadith

Fatima was one of the Tabi'un and transmitters of hadith. She Transmitted hadith from her figures including father Imam al-Husayn (a), he grandmother Lady Fatima (a), her aunt Lady Zaynab (a), his brother Imam al-Sajjad (a), Asma' bt. 'Umays, 'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas, Bilal, and Aisha. Fatima has been regarded as a trustworthy transmitter from the fourth level of transmitters.

References