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Ja'da bt. al-Ash'ath b. Qays

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Priority: c, Quality: b
Ja'da bt. al-Ash'ath b. Qays
Murderer of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a)
Epithet Sukayna, Sha'tha' and 'Ayisha
Well-known As Ja'da
Lineage Kinda tribe
Well-known Relatives Al-Ash'ath b. Qays al-Kindi (father)
Era Umayyad Dynasty
Known for Wife of Imam al-Hasan (a)
Activities Poisoned Imam al-Hasan (a) following the plot and provocation of Mu'awiya.

Jaʿda bt. al-Ashʿath b. Qays al-Kindī was the wife of Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) who poisoned Imam (a) following the plot and provocation of Mu'awiya. She had no children from Imam al-Hasan (a). There are different accounts about how and why she married Imam (a).

Lineage

There is no mention in historical books about the birth of Ja'da, but about her lineage, it is mentioned that her father Ash'ath b. Qays al-Kindi was among famous people in early decades of Islam and her mother was Umm Farwa, Abu Bakr's sister.[1]

Abu al-Faraj Isfahani said, "It is said that she had names including Sukayna, Sha'tha' and 'Ayisha but her correct name was Ja'da.[2] Later, her children were called "Bani Musammat al-Azwaj", i.e. 'children of the one who poisoned her husbands.'

Marriage

Al-Baladhuri believed that Ash'ath b. Qays had a hypocrite role in this marriage. He believed that Imam Ali (a) had considered the daughter of Sa'id b. Qays named "Umm 'Imran" for the wife of his son al-Hasan (a), but Sa'id consulted his brother Ash'ath about that and Ash'ath directed him so that Sa'id gave his daughter to son of Ash'ath and the marriage of Umm 'Imran and Imam al-Hasan (a) was cancelled, then he suggested his own daughter Ja'da for the marriage with Imam al-Hasan (a).[3]

As it can be learned from historical reports, the marriage of Imam al-Hasan (a) with Ja'da happened during the rule of Imam Ali (a) in Kufa.[4]

Imam Ali's (a) proposal for Imam al-Hasan's (a) marriage in Kufa weakens the views of those who say that Imam al-Hasan (a) married women and then divorced them frequently and that Imam Ali (a) was not happy with this and asked people in Kufa not to allow their daughters marry Imam al-Hasan (a); because, if Imam Ali (a) was not happy with the marriage of Imam al-Hasan (a), he (a) himself would not make a proposal for him.

On the other hand, Ja'da was living with Imam al-Hasan (a) until the end of his life for about 10 years and this weakens reports suggesting that Imam al-Hasan (a) divorced his wives frequently, because Imam al-Hasan (a) could stand living with someone like Ja'da, whose father was Ash'ath who had stood up against Imam Ali (a) in the battle of Siffin and made him accept the judgment of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and led the events toward a judgement in favor of Mu'awiya, and also she had such a characteristic that finally killed Imam al-Hasan (a) and had no children from Imam (a) either. Thus, it cannot be claimed without any definite reason that Imam al-Hasan (a) divorced mothers of his children easily.

Children

There is no report about Imam's (a) children whose mother would be Ja'da. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has mentioned 8 sons and 7 daughters for Imam al-Hasan (a), none of whose mother is Ja'da.[5]

Killing Imam al-Hasan (a)

According to Shia and Sunni reports, Ja'da was the one who killed Imam al-Hasan (a). Al-Sakhawi quoted from Ibn 'Abd al-Birr saying, "Due to her hatred toward Imam al-Hasan (a), Ja'da poisoned him.[6]

Shi'a sources have said that Mu'awiya made plot and promised Ja'da with financial helps and marriage with his son, Yazid, and encouraged her to poison Imam al-Hasan (a).[7]

Some reports say that Mu'wiya gave the poison for poisoning Imam (a) to Ja'da by himself.[8]

Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi has narrated a report suggesting that after drinking the poisoned drink, Imam (a) cursed Ja'da.[9]

Al-Kulayni has narrated a hadith, in which Imam al-Sadiq (a) says, "Ash'ath b. Qays is an accomplice in the murder of Imam Ali (a), his daughter, Ja'da poisoned al-Hasan b. Ali (a) and his son, Muhammad, was an accomplice in the martyrdom of al-Husayn b. Ali (a).[10]

After Imam al-Hasan (a)

Abu al-Faraj wrote, "Mu'awiya fulfilled his financial promise and sent a hundred thousand Dirhams for Ja'da, but did not accept that she marries Yazid.[11] About this, Mu'awiya said, 'I am afraid you do to my son what you did in poisoning the son of the Prophet (s).'"[12]

Marriages

About Ja'da's destiny after Imam al-Hasan (a), it has been mentioned in the history that she married two times after Imam al-Hasan (a). First, she married Ya'qub b. Talha b. 'Ubayd Allah[13] from whom she bore three sons named Isma'il, Ishaq, and Abu Bakr and Isma'il, Ishaq died while their father was alive.[14] After Ya'qub b. Talha was killed in the Event of Harra in 63/682,[15] she married al-'Abbas b. 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas, the eldest son of Ibn 'Abbas and bore a son for him named Muhammad and a daughter named Qariba, no descendants remained of them.[16]

See Also

Notes

  1. Ibn Aʿtham, Kitāb al-Futūḥ, vol. 1, p. 68.
  2. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-Ṭālibīyyīn, p. 32.
  3. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-Ashrāf, vol. 3, p.14-15.
  4. See: Ibn ʿAsākir, Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq, vol. 9, p. 138-139.
  5. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 20.
  6. Sakhāwī, al-Tuḥfa al-laṭīfa, vol. 1, p. 283.
  7. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 2, p. 16.
  8. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 2, p. 13.
  9. Rāwandī, al-Khraʾij wa l-jarāʾih, vol. 1, p. 242.
  10. Kulaynī, Al-Kāfī, vol. 8, p. 167.
  11. Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, Maqātil al-Ṭālibīyyīn, p. 48.
  12. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-Balāgha, vol. 16, p. 11.
  13. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-Ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 15.
  14. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 5, p. 165.
  15. Ziriklī, al-Aʿlām, vol. 8, p. 199; Ibn Ḥibbān, al-Thiqāt, vol. 5, p. 553.
  16. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 5, p. 315.

References

  • Abū l-Faraj al-Iṣfahānī, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn. Maqātil al-Ṭālibīyyīn. Najaf: Maktabat al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1385 AH.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-Ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir al-Maḥmūdī. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1397 AH -1977.
  • Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Hibat Allāh. Sharḥ Nahj al-Balāgha. Beirut: Dār al-Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿArabīyya, 1378 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAsākir, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan. Tārīkh madīnat Dimashq. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1415 AH.
  • Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī, Aḥmad b. Aʿtham. Kitāb al-Futūḥ. Edited by ʿAlī Shīrī. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwaʾ, 1411AH-1991.
  • Ibn Ḥibbān, Muḥammad. Al-Thiqāt. Hyderabad of India: Majlis Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-ʿUthmānīyya, 1393 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Ḥāshimī al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffāri. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1363Sh.
  • Rāwandī, Quṭb al-Dīn al-. Al-Khraʾij wa l-jarāʾih. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Imām al-Mahdī, 1409 AH.
  • Sakhāwī, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-. Al-Tuḥfa al-laṭīfa fī tārīkh al-Madīna al-sharīfa. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya.
  • Shaykh al-Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Nuʿmān al-. Al-Irshād fī maʿrifat ḥujaj Allah ʿala l-ʿibād. Beirut: Dār al-Mufīd, 1414 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Iḥtijāj ʿalā ahl al-lijāj. Najaf: Dār al-Nuʿmān, 1386 AH.
  • Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn al-. Al-Aʿlām. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li-l-Malāyyīn, 1980.