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Zaynab bt. Khuzayma

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For other people named Zaynab, see Zaynab (disambiguation).
Zaynab bt. Khuzayma
Wife of the Prophet (s)
Well-known As Umm al-Masakin, Umm al-Mu'minin
Lineage Quraysh
Place of Birth Mecca
Places of Residence Mecca, Medina
Death/Martyrdom 4/625
Burial Place Al-Baqi' cemetery
Known for Wife of the Prophet (s)
امهات المؤمنین.png
Name Date of Marriage
Khadija (27 BH/595)
Sawda (before Hijra/before 622)
Aisha (1,2, or 4/622, 623, or 625)
Hafsa (3/624)
Zaynab (bt. Khuzayma) (3/624)
Umm Salama (4/625)
Zaynab (bt. Jahsh) (5/626)
Juwayriyya (5 or 6/626 or 627)
Umm Habiba (6 or 7/627 or 628)
Mariya (7/628)
Safiyya (7/628)
Maymuna (7/628)

Zaynab bt. Khuzayma b. al-Hārith (Arabic: زینب بنت خزیمة بنت الحارث), (d. 4/625) a descendant of 'Abd Manaf, known in the Age of Ignorance as Umm al-Masākīn, was the wife of the Prophet (s). After divorcing Tufayl b. Harith, she married his brother 'Utayda b. Harith. When Utayda was martyred in the Battle of Badr, she married the Prophet (s), but this marriage did not last long and she died at the age of 30. The holy prophet (s) buried him in al-Baqi' cemetery.

Lineage

According to sources, her lineage from her father is as follows: Daughter of Khuzayma b. al-Harith b. 'Abd Allah b. 'Amr b. 'Abd Manaf b. Hilal b. 'Amir b. Sa'sa'at al-'Amiri.[1]

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr states that Abu l-Hasan al-Jurjani mentions her as the sister of Maymuna bt. al-Harith, the holy Prophet's wife, and he adds: "I did not see this except from him."[2] Ibn Habib al-Baghdadi also counts Maymuna as her maternal sister.[3]

Sobriquet

Because of her kindness towards the poor and the needy, Zaynab bt. Khuzayma was given the sobriquet "Umm al-Masakin" (The Mother of the poor).[4] She was also known by this sobriquet during the Ignorance time.[5]

Marriage with Prophet Muhammad

There is an argument among historians about her former husband. Majority of historians believe that she was married to Tufayl b. al-Harith b. Muttalib b. 'Abd Manaf; but divorced him and married his brother, 'Ubayda,[6] who was wounded at the Battle of Badr, and died at the age of 64.[7] However, according to some sources, she was first married to Jahm b. 'Amr b. al-Harith, the cousin of 'Ubayda,[8] who she married after she divorced Jahm. In other sources, she was married to 'Abd Allah b. Jahsh. 'Abd Allah was martyred in the Battle of Uhud.[9]

After the demise of Zaynab's husband, Prophet Muhammad (s) asked her for marriage.[10] She asked the Prophet (s) to make the decision for her.[11] Prophet Muhammad (s) married her in the Ramadan of 3 (January, 625).[12] Nevertheless, there are disagreements about the amount of her mahr (dowry) and the details of how the Prophet (s) asked her for marriage.[13]

Demise

After living 8 months with Prophet Muhammad (s), she passed away in Rabi' II, 4 (September, 625).[14] According to some sources, she only spent 2 or 3 months with the Prophet.[15] The Prophet himself said her burial prayer(salat al-mayyit), and buried her in al-Baqi' cemetery.[16]

Zaynab was almost 30.[17] She and Khadija were the only two wives of Prophet Muhammad (s) who passed away before him.[18] She was also the first wife of the Prophet who passed away in Medina. The Prophet did not have any children from her.[19]

Notes

  1. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1853; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 129; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 648.
  2. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1853.
  3. Ibn Ḥabīb al-Baghdādī, al-Muḥabbar, p. 106-109.
  4. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 129; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 648.
  5. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1853; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91.
  6. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-Ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 429; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91.
  7. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-Ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 429.
  8. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 648.
  9. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1853; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 129.
  10. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 11, p. 596.
  11. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91.
  12. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1853; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 11, p. 596.
  13. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1599; Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 5, p. 14; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 647.
  14. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 11, p. 596.
  15. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 45.
  16. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 11, p. 596.
  17. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 91.
  18. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 1, p. 45.
  19. Bayhaqī, Dalāʾil al-nabuwwa, vol. 3, p. 159.

References

  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-Ashrāf. Edited by Suhayl Zakār & Rīyāḍ al-Ziriklī, Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Bayhaqī, Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusayn al-. Dalāʾil al-nabuwwa wa maʿrifat aḥwāl ṣāḥib al-sharīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1405 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jail, 1992.
  • Ibn Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥabīb al-Baghdādī. Al-Muḥabbar. Edited by Ilse Lichtenstaedter. Beirut: Dār al-Āfāq al-Jadīda, [n.d].
  • Ibn Hishām, Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Muṣtafā al-Saqā et. al. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, [n.d].
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Baṣarī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1410 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Edited by Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Turāth, 1967 AH.