|Full Name||Shayba b. Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf|
|Well-known As||The grandfather of Prophet Muhammad (s)|
|Birth||127 before Hijra/500|
|Place of Birth||Yathrib|
|Place of Residence||Yathrib, Mecca|
|Death/Martyrdom||- 45 before Hijra/579|
|Burial Place||Al-Ma'at Cemetery|
|Notable roles||head of Quraysh, one of the elites of Mecca|
ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib b. Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf, (Arabic: عبدالمطّلب بن هاشم بن عبد مناف ) (b. 127 before Hijra/500 - d. 45 before Hijra/579) is the paternal grandfather of Prophet Muhammad (s), and the chief of the Quraysh tribe. He was also one of the nobles of Mecca. Born in Yathrib, he migrated to Mecca when he was seven and became a nobility. The astonishing event of the Companions of the Elephant (the offensive of Abraha) occurred during his rule in Mecca.
'Abd al-Muttalib is from the Quraysh tribe and is the offspring of Hashim, thus related to the Banu Hashim. He descends from Prophet Ibrahim (a). His mother, Salam daughter of 'Amr, is from the Banu Najjar Khazraj clan. This family became the companions of the Holy Prophet (s) after he migrated to Medina. All Shi'a Imams (a) and all Talibi's (Banu 'Ali, Banu Ja'far, Banu 'Aqil) descend from Abu Talib b. 'Abd al-Muttalib. Banu 'Abbas, including their 37 Abbasid caliphs (132/656 - 750/1258) descend from 'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib. The 17 Abbasid caliphs of Egypt (659/1261 - 923/1518) descend from the 35th Abbasid caliph in Iraq, al-Zahir Billah (622/1225 - 623/1226).
|Family tree of the Prophet (s)|
Name and Epithet
'Abd al-Muttalib's name was Shayba and his epithet was Abu l-Harith. It is said that he was addressed with other names and epithets as well, such as: Amir, Sayyid al-Batha', Saqi l-Hajij, Saqi l-Ghayth, Ghayth al-Wara fi l-'Am al-Judub, Abu l-Sadat al-'Ashara, 'Abd al-Muttalib, Hafir Zamzam, Ibrahim Thani, and Fayyad.
In regards to the epithet 'Abd al-Muttalib which is most popular, it is said that a couple of years after the death of Hashim, Muttalib (paternal uncle of 'Abd al-Muttalib) took him from Yathrib to Mecca. When people saw Muttalib entering the city with 'Abd al-Muttalib they thought he was Muttalib's slave, bought from Yathrib. He therefore became known as 'Abd al-Muttalib and this name stuck.
'Abd al-Muttalib's father, Hashim, married with Salma daughter of 'Amr b. Zayd from the Banu Najjar clan, in one of his trips to Yathrib. Before the birth of his son, he traveled to Gaza in what is nowadays Palestine, died and was buried there. Based on various historians, 'Abd al-Muttalib lived with his mother in Medina for seven years or more, before he went to Mecca with his uncle, Muttalib.
Positions in Mecca
Muttalib inherited his brother's positions and was appointed as chieftain. Some time later, he died in Yemen, in a land called Radman and the positions he had inherited from his father passed down to 'Abd al-Muttalib, who was his nephew. Muttalib became a noble in Mecca as a result of his magnanimity, good management and strategies. He became famous and his superiority became clear. Quraysh acknowledged his nobility as well.
Personality of 'Abd al-Muttalib
'Abd al-Muttalib was an unparalleled noble of Quraysh in those days, for God had granted him magnanimity He had granted no one else before, and quenched his thirst from the Zamzam well (in Mecca) and Dhu l-Harm (in Ta'if). Quraysh appointed him as referee for [issues relating to] their wealth. He fed the people in times of famine and hunger, so much that he had even fed the birds of the mountains. In this regard Abu Talib says:
- When the hands of gamblers start to tremble (i.e. when the generous start to become stingy) we shall give people so much food that even the birds will eat from what is left.
'Abd al-Muttalib did not worship idols, and believed in the oneness of God. He was loyal to his pledges and started various traditions, some of which have been mentioned in the Qur'an.
Al-Ya'qubi cites himself in a narration that quotes the Holy Prophet (s), "God will resurrect my grandfather, 'Abd al-Muttalib, with the looks of the Prophets and the awe of the kings."
Companions of the Elephant
- Main article: 'Am al-Fil
According to religious and regional narrations, Abraha's offensive against Mecca, famously known as the Companions of the Elephant, was contemporary to 'Abd al-Muttalib. Abraha marched from Yemen to Mecca with an army of elephants to destroy the Ka'ba. Abraha's army pillaged the camels of Quraysh, for which a meeting between 'Abd al-Muttalib and Abraha was organized, where 'Abd al-Muttalib only requested his camels be freed. Abraha said, "I thought you have come to negotiate about the Ka'ba." 'Abd al-Muttalib replied, "I am the master of the camels, and that house (i.e. the Ka'ba) has a master for itself." He went back to Mecca and told the people to go to the mountains and take their belongings with them. Only a couple of Abraha's men survived and fled the following day, when a giant flock of birds attacked his army.
Digging the Zamzam Well
- Main article: Zamzam
According to historical documents of Mecca, prior to Qusay b. Kilab's conquest, who was 'Abd al-Muttalib's grandfather, the Jurhum tribe ruled over Mecca. The oppressiveness of their tribesmen evoked a rise against them by other tribes. In the end, the Khuza'a tribe defeated them. 'Umar b. Harith, the final Jurhum ruler went inside the Ka'ba and hid all the jewelry and valuable presents that had been gifted to the Ka'ba, in the Zamzam Well and filled the well with soil to hide it.
Years later, 'Abd al-Muttalib attempted to find the well. It is said that he found the place of the well in a dream and was given the mission to excavate it. 'Abd al-Muttalib excavated Zamzam, found the jewelry, and spent it for the Ka'ba. Zamzam once again sprang with water.
According to reports 'Abd al-Muttalib faced disagreement and obstruction by the Quraysh when he decided to excavate the well. He made a pledge that if God gives him ten sons he would sacrifice one of them next to the Ka'ba. God Almighty blessed him with ten sons. He randomly selected one of his sons, and 'Abd Allah's name came out, but he sacrificed a hundred camels instead.
'Ali Dawani believes this story is not true and was composed by the Umayyads, arguing based on the weak chain of narrators that includes unknown or weak persons, and the fact that child sacrificing was a pagan tradition while 'Abd al-Muttalib was a monotheist. He believes that the Umayyads fabricated this story in order to decrease Imam 'Ali's (a) position through damaging his ancestral nobility.
According to some reports 'Abd al-Muttalib adhered to the religion of Hanif and was not an idol worshiper. Al-Mas'udi, 9th-10th century (third century AH) historian, talks of disputes about the religion 'Abd al-Muttalib professed and explains that one belief is that neither he nor any of the Holy Prophet's (s) ancestors were idol worshipers. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq narrates from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that the Holy Prophet (s) said to Imam 'Ali (a), "'Abd al-Muttalib never gambled and never worshiped idols and... and he always said, 'I adhere to the religion of my father, Ibrahim.'"
Traditions Established by 'Abd al-Muttalib
In his book, Al-Khisal, al-Shaykh al-Saduq narrates from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that the Holy Prophet (s) said to Imam 'Ali (a), "'Abd al-Muttalib established five traditions during the Jahiliyya Era (The Age of Ignorance) that God [also] obligated in Islam: He disallowed sons from marrying their father's wives and God has said in the Qur'an:
|“||Do not marry any of the women whom your fathers had married, excluding what is already past.That is indeed an indecency, an outrage and an evil course.||”|
|— Qur'an, 4:22|
He found a treasure (this could be the treasure he excavated from the Zamzam well) and gave a fifth of it as charity, God says in the Qur'an:
|“||Know that whatever thing you may come by, a fifth of it is for Allah||”|
|— Qur'an, 8:41|
When he excavated Zamzam he named it Siqayat al-hajj (Station for Hajis to drink) and God has said:
|“||Do you regard the providing of water to hajj pilgrims and the maintenance of the Holy Mosque as similar [in worth] to someone who has faith in Allah and [believes in] the Last Day||”|
|— Qur'an, 9:19|
'Abd al-Muttalib set the blood money for killing a man at one hundred camels, and God also applied this in Islam. The Quraysh did not know how many times they must circumambulate the Ka'ba (do tawaf), 'Abd al-Muttalib set this to seven and God applied these seven circumambulations to Islam as well.
Al-Ya'qubi wrote: He established traditions that the Prophet acted upon, and verses were revealed for it, and they were:
Loyalty to pledges, a hundred camels for blood money, illegalized marriage with maharim, refraining from entering a house from its roof, amputation of a thief's hand, disapproved of killing daughters, Mubahala, prohibition of wine, prohibition of adultery and appointing a punishment for it, lottery, prohibition of circumambulating the Ka'ba naked, respect for guests, supplying Hajj expenses with legitimate money, respect for Haram months, avoid ostentation and hypocrisy.
It is mostly believed that the Holy Prophet (s) was eight years old when 'Abd al-Muttalib passed away at the age of eighty two, or one hundred and eight, or one hundred and forty.
It is said that before his demise 'Abd al-Muttalib summoned his daughters, "Cry for me and read the elegies you want to read about me, so I can hear what you want to read for me after death before I die." His daughters did so, they mourned and each read their elegies.
Umm Ayman has been quoted saying that the Prophet (s) followed the corpse of 'Abd al-Muttalib in his funeral and cried, until they buried him next to his grandfather, Qusay b. Kilab, in al-Hajun neighborhood.
Apart from Hamza, 'Abbas, and Abu Talib, none of the Prophet's (s) paternal uncles, and none of his paternal aunts except Safiyya, and according to some narrations Arwa, became Muslim.
- The material for writing this article was mainly taken from عبدالمطلب in Farsi WikiShia.