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Laylat al-Mabit

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Laylat al-Mabīt (Arabic: لیلة المبیت) is the title of the night in which the Prophet (s) emigrated from Mecca to Medina. Polytheists of Quraysh had plotted to assassinate the Prophet (s), 'Ali (a) slept in his bed, so the assassins will not notice his absence. The verse 207 of Sura al-Baqara is revealed about the sacrifice of 'Ali (a) for saving the life of the Prophet (s).

Plan of Assassination of the Prophet (s)

After the demise of Abu Talib, Quraysh polytheists intensified the harassment of Muslims. As the life of Muslims was in danger, the Prophet (s) ordered Muslims to emigrate to Yathrib. The Prophet (s) had recently made an allegiance with the people of Yathrib, so the Muslims were safe there. The Muslims started to emigrate to Yathrib covertly in small groups.[1]

Heads of Quraysh gathered in Dar al-Nadwa to decide about their encounter with the Prophet (s); at last, with the propose of Abu Jahl, it was decided that chosen brave man from every tribe attack the Prophet (s) together and assassinate him in his home, so all the tribes have part in the assassination of the Prophet (s) and Banu Hashim, who were his family and his avengers, could not fight all the tribes and have to accept the blood money.[2]

Information of the Prophet (s)

After the decision of Quraysh to assassinate the Prophet (s), Jabra'il (Gabriel) informed the Prophet (s) about the plan and revealed the verse 30 of Sura al-Anfal (8): "When the faithless plotted against you to take you captive, or to kill or expel you. They plotted and Allah devised, and Allah is the best of devisers", so the Prophet (s) decided to emigrate to Yathrib.[3] While he was leaving, he recited: "And We have put a barrier before them and a barrier behind them, then We have blind-folded them, so they do not see" (Quran 36:9), so the polytheists could not see him.[4]

Emigration to Yathrib

In the night of Rabi' I 1, the Prophet (s) told 'Ali (a): "the angel descended to me and informed me that Quraysh polytheists are united to kill me, and he recommended me from my God to emigrate from my tribe, and go to the Thawr cave tonight, and he ordered me to order you to sleep in my bed so my trace will become hidden by that; so what do you say and what will you do?", so 'Ali (a) said: "will you be safe by my sleeping there?", the Prophet (s) said: "yes", so 'Ali (a) smiled and bowed down to perform al-sajda al-shukr out of happiness, then said: "go as you are ordered, may my ears, eyes, and the very heart be sacrificed for you, order me as you wish, I am like your assistant, I will do it as you want, and my success is only by Allah."[5] the Prophet (s) said: "sleep in my bed, and put on my clothes, and I inform you that Allah tests his friends according to their faith and their rank in His religion, so the most hardly tested people are the prophets, then their successors, etc., so He is testing you and is testing me with you, like He tested His friend Ibrahim (a), and Isma'il (a) (when Ibrahim was commanded to slaughter Isma'il), so be patient, be patient, for 'indeed Allah's mercy is close to the virtuous'" then embraced 'Ali (a) and both cried, then they separated.[6]

The polytheists, besieged the house of the Prophet (s) from the beginning of the night and they were expecting the midnight to attack, but Abu Lahab said: "some women and children are in the house and maybe they become harmed and later this will be a shame for us between 'Arabs" (So they postponed the attack to the sunrise.)[7]

'Ali (a) slept in the bed of the Prophet (s), the polytheists were throwing little stones to him to ensure that someone is sleeping in the bed, and they were certain that he is the Prophet (s).[8]

In the morning when they attacked the house with drawn swords, saw 'Ali (a) in the bed of the Prophet (s), they said: "where is Muhammad?" 'Ali (a) said: "were you entrusted him to me that you are asking me about him? Were not you saying that you will expel him from your land?" They attacked 'Ali (a) and beat him saying: "you were tricking us for the night!" Then they started to search for the Prophet (s).[9]

There is also another report: when the sun started to rise they feared to be exposed by the morning so they attacked, at the time the houses in Mecca did not have doors and only curtains were used, when 'Ali (a) saw them drawn their swords and are coming to him, and Khalid b. al-Walid is leading them, 'Ali (a) jumped to him, took his sword and broke his hand, so Khalid started to jump up and down and yelling like a camel, the others were still on the stairs when 'Ali (a) went to them with the sword, they fled from him like a herd of sheep and went to the roof, and suddenly they discovered that this is 'Ali, "are you 'Ali?" they asked, "I am 'Ali" he replied, they said: "we do not intend you, where is Muhammad?", "I do not know" 'Ali (a) said. So they get on their horses and camels and went after the Prophet (s).[10]

First Imam of Shi'a
'Ali (a)


Life
Event of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarSuccession of the Prophet (s)Timeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya SermonHoly Shrine


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayatHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-AbwabHadith al-Wisaya


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Revealation of a Verse about 'Ali (a)

As Shi'a and Sunni scholars have narrated, the verse 207 of Sura al-Baqara is revealed about the night and the sacrifice of 'Ali (a) for the Prophet (s).[11]

Blessing of Angels on 'Ali

The Prophet (s) said: "Allah told Jabra'il and Mika'il: 'I have made you two brothers and made the life of one of you shorter than the other, which one of you would prefer his brother (to live longer)?' both of them disliked the death, then Allah told them: 'are not you like My friend, 'Ali b. Abi Talib?, I made him brother with My Prophet, and he preferred him to live, then slept in his bed, sacrificing his life for him, both of you descend to the earth, and protect him from his enemies' then Jabra'il descended to top of his head and Mika'il descended to down of his feet, and Jabra'il said: 'good for someone like you, O the son of Abu Talib, that Allah is proud in you in front of the angles.'"[12]

Notes

  1. Ibn Hisham, Sira l-nabawiyya, vol.1 p.480
  2. Tabrisi, I'lam al-wara, p.88
  3. Halabi, Sira, vol.2 p.32
  4. Subhani, Furugh abadiyyat, vol.1 p.420
  5. Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol.19 p.60
  6. Tusi, Amali, p.466
  7. Halabi, Sira, vol.2 p.32
  8. Tusi, Amali, p.298
  9. Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol.19 p.92
  10. Tusi, Amali, p.466-467; Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol.19 p.58-63
  11. Tabataba'i, al-Mizan, vol.2 p.135; Hakim al-Nishaburi, al-Mustadrak, vol.3 p.5; Shaybani, Fada'il al-sahaba, vol.2 p.484; 'Ayyashi, Tafsir, vol.1 p.101; Zarkashi, al-Burhan, vol.1 p.206
  12. Saduq, Amali, p.469; Fakhr Razi, Mafatih al-ghayb, vol.5 p.174; Haskani, Shawahid, vol.1 p.123

References

  • 'Ayyashi, Muhammad b. Mas'ud al-. Al-Tafsir. Tehran: Maktaba al-'Ilmiyya al-Islamiyya
  • Razi, Fakhr al-Din al-. Mafatih al-Ghayb. 'Uthmaniyya
  • Hakim al-Nishaburi, Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah al-. Al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihayn. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyya
  • Halabi, 'Ali b. Ibrahim al-. Al-Sira al-halabiyya. Beirut: Dar al-Ma'rifa
  • Haskani, 'Ubayd Allah b. 'Abd Allah al-. Shawahid al-tanzil. Tehran: Wizarat Irshad Islami
  • Ibn Hisham. Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya. Cairo: Maktaba Muhammad 'Ali Sabih.
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar. Beirut: Mu'assisa al-Wafa'
  • Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali al-, Al-Amali. Qom: Bi'that
  • Shaybani, Abu 'Abd Allah al-. Fada'il al-sahaba. Beirut: Mu'assia al-Risala
  • Subhani, Ja'far. Furugh abadiyyat. Qom: Bustan-i Kitab
  • Tabataba'i, Muhammad Husayn al-. Al-Mizan fi tafsir al-qur'an. Qom: Jami'a Mudarrisin
  • Tabrisi, Fadl b. Hasan al-. I'lam al-wara. Tehran: Intishart Islamiyya
  • Tusi, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-. Amali. Qom: Dar al-Thiqafa li l-Tiba'a
  • Zarkashi, Muhammad b. Bahadur. Al-Burhan. Dar Ihya' al-Kutub al-'Arabiyya