Al-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon

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This article is an introduction to the al-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon; to read its text see text:al-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon.
Number of al-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon in different versions of Nahj al-balagha
Version's Name Sermon num.
Mulla Fath Allah 4
Al-Mu'jam al-Mufahras and other editions 3

Imam 'Ali (a)
First Imam of Shi'a


Life
Event of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarCaliphateTimeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya Sermon


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayaHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-AbwabHadith al-WisayaLa Fata Illa Ali


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Related Topics
Holy Shrine


Al-Shiqshiqīyya Sermon (Arabic: الخطبة الشقشقیة) is one of the best-known sermons in Nahj al-balagha. In this sermon, Imam 'Ali (a) depicts the periods of the first three Caliphs, and criticizes their performances, challenging the legitimacy of their caliphate. He also points out that people rushed into his house in order to pledge their allegiance to him. He refers to Nakithun (Oath-breakers), Qasitun (the cruel)و and Mariqun (Khawarij), and he finally mentions the reason why he accepted to undertake the power. In most versions of Nahj al-balagha, the sermon is the third sermon.

The person who directly narrated the sermon (that is, heard it immediately from Imam 'Ali (a) himself) was 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas whose narrations are also reliable for Sunni Muslims. The sermon has repeatedly been translated and interpreted. Some Sunni scholars have cast doubts about the reliability and the content of the sermon, though some others take it to be reliable.

Place and Time

As evidenced by historical points made in the sermon, such as Imam 'Ali's (a) talk of Nakithun (his enemies in the Battle of Jamal, 36/656), Qasitun (Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan and his companions in the Battle of Siffin, late 36/657 and early 37/657) and Mariqun (Khawarij in the Battle of Nahrawan, late 37/658 or early 38/658) and as evidenced by Ibn 'Abbas's presence in Kufa, the sermon should have been delivered around late 38/659 or early 39/659.[1]

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid[2] and Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi[3] took the sermon to have taken place in "rahba" (Arabic: رَحبَه). By "rahba" here is meant a place in the middle of the courtyard of Kufa Mosque in which Imam 'Ali (a) gave many sermons or issued judiciary verdicts. This is why during the anti-'Ali (a) period of Ziyad b. Abih, narrators of hadith mentioned Imam 'Ali (a) as "Sahib al-Rahba" (the companion of rahba).[4] According to al-Mutarrizi (d. 610/1213-4), rahba in Kufa was a podium in the middle of the Kufa Mosque in which Imam 'Ali (a) sat and delivered his sermons. This is the place where Imam 'Ali (a) was said to have thrown the booties of Khawarij.[5]

Appellation

The sermon is called "al-Muqammasa" (dressed) because of its first sentence: "I swear to God! X dressed (taqammasaha) himself with it". The term "taqammus" means dressing: Imam 'Ali assimilated the caliphate to a dress that Abu Bakr had put on though it did not fit him. However, the sermon is more widely known as "al-Shiqshiqiyya" because of what Imam 'Ali (a) said at the end of the sermon when 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas asked him to continue the sermon: "it was like the foam of a Camel (shiqshiqa) which gushed out but subsided".

According to Arabic lexicologists and commentators of the sermon, "shiqshiqa" is something like a foam coming out of a camel's mouth when it is excited or angry; it is accompanied with the turning of the sound inside the camel's throat, and then it calms down. This does not occur in normal situations.

Imam 'Ali (a) assimilated his own state with the excitation of a camel; the sermon thus came out of his mouth and heart like a foam. He said that at the end of the sermon he was in a normal situation and thus he could not continue the sermon. This is why 'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas is quoted as saying that: "I have never regretted any talk remaining unfinished like I did for this sermon".

Main Issues

  • Abu Bakr's knowledge of Imam 'Ali's (a) superiority over him with respect to the caliphate.
  • The usurpation of caliphate by the first caliph.
  • Imam 'Ali's (a) forbearance despite the difficulties he faced during the caliphate of the three caliphs before him.
  • Imam 'Ali's (a) surprise that Abu Bakr chose a successor for himself.
  • His concerns about Abu Bakr's having chosen a violent person as his successor.
  • The uncontrollability of 'Umar b. al-Khattab and people's troubles during his period.
  • The incomparability of Imam 'Ali (a) with other members of the six-member council and thus criticizing the formation of such a council.
  • His criticism of the arrangement of the council, since the conclusion was already determined due to this arrangement.
  • The embezzlement of the treasury during the period of 'Uthman b. 'Affan leading to his murder.
  • People's rush to pledge their allegiance with Imam 'Ali (a).
  • A mention of Nakithun, Mariqun, and Qasitun. According to Imam 'Ali (a), their materialism led to their oppositions with him.
  • The reason why Imam 'Ali (a) accepted the caliphate.

Sources before al-Sayyid al-Radi

Given criticisms made of the first three Caliphs, many Sunni scholars cast doubts over the reliability of the sermon. Moreover, some of them said that this sermon alone shows that the whole Nahj al-balagha is unreliable.[6]

According to Shi'i scholars, the sermon can be found in some works before Nahj al-balagha and its sources of narration go back to Imam 'Ali (a) himself. In his al-Ghadir, 'Allama Amini mentioned 28 chains of narrations for this sermon in none of which al-Sayyid al-Radi appears.[7] In the book Partowi az nahj al-balagha (a light from Nahj al-balagha), 22 chains of narrations have been mentioned for the sermon, eight of which are from sources before al-Sayyid al-Radi, five from al-Sayyid Radi's contemporaries, and nine from sources after Nahj al-balagha or after the 5th/11th century from sources independent from Nahj al-balagha.[8]

  • Al-Shaykh al-Mufid (d. 413/1022), al-Sayyid al-Radi's teacher, cited the sermon in his book, al-Irshad, saying that some narrators had cited the sermon with different chains of narrations.[12] In his essay, al-Mas'alatan fi l-nass 'ala 'Ali (a) (Arabic: (المسألتان في النص علی علي (ع); two problems about textual evidence for 'Ali (a)), he cited the sermon as a well-known one,[13] showing that there was no doubt about the reliability of the sermon in his time. In his book, al-Jamal, al-Shaykh al-Mufid takes the sermon to be too famous to need an explanation.[14]

Commentaries on the Sermon

  • An exegesis of the al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon in Arabic by al-Sayyid al-Murtada (d. 436/1044-5)[15] published in the essays of al-Sayyid al-Murtada (vol. 2).
  • Al-Shiqshiqiyya: dirasa mawdu'iyya li-shakhsiyyat tasaddat li-l-khilafat al-Islamiyya (the al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon: a case study of figures who occupied the Islamic caliphate) by 'Abd al-Rasul al-Ghaffari.
  • Ahi suzan az amir mu'minan (a); sharhi bar khutba shiqshiqiyya (A burning sigh from Amir al-Mu'minin (a); a commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon) by 'Ali Asghar Ridwani.
  • Sayiban Siyah, sharh khutba shiqshiqiyya amir mu'minan 'Ali (the black sunshade, a commentary of al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon by Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali (a)) by Nadir Fadli.
  • Al-Shadharat al-'Alawiyya fi sharh al-khutba al-shiqshiqiyya li-l-Imam 'Ali ('Alawi lights in the exposition of al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon of Imam 'Ali (a)) by Abu Dhar al-Ghaffari.
  • A commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon by Murtada Qasimi Kashani.
  • A translation and a commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon by Muhammad Baqir Rashad Zanjani.
  • 'Aqida-yi Shi'a dar khutba-yi Shiqshiqiyya (Shiite beliefs in al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon) by Muhammad Asadi Garmarudi.
  • Al-Masa'il al-tatbiqiyya 'ala l-khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyya (Comparative issues concerning al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon), by 'Ali al-Tabrizi.
  • Al-Tawdihat al-tahqiqiyya fi sharh al-khutbat al-Shiqshiqiyya (scholarly commentaries in the exposition of al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon) by Sayyid 'Ali Akbar b. Sayyid Muhammad b. Sayyid Dildar (d. 1326/1908).[16]
  • Sharh-i khutba-yi Shiqshiqiyya (a commentary on the sermon) by Mulla Ibrahim Gilani, a scholar of the 11th/17th century. The main manuscript is found in Qom.[17]
  • A commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon by Mirza Abu l-Ma'ali al-Kalbasi (d. 1315/1898).[18]
  • A commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon by Taj al-'Ulama Lakhanawi (d. 1312/1895).[19]
  • A Farsi commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon in a poetic style by Sayyid Muhammad Taqi al-Qazwini (d. 1270/1854). A manuscript of the commentary is available in the Sipahsalar Library and the Library of Tehran University.[20]
  • An Arabic commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon by Sayyid Ja'far b. Sadiq al-'Abid.[21]
  • A commentary of the sermon in Arabic by the famous orator, Sayyid 'Ali Hashimi.[22]
  • Al-Naqd al-sadid fi sharh al-khutba al-Shiqshiqiyya li-Ibn Abi l-Hadid (a solid criticism of Ibn Abi l-Hadid's commentary on al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon) in Arabic by Shaykh Muhsin Karim in volumes. The first volume was published in 1383/1963-4) in Najaf.[24]
  • Kashf al-sahab fi sharh al-khutba al-Shiqshiqiyya (uncovering the clouds in the exposition of al-Shiqshiqiyya sermon) by Mulla Habib Allah Kashani (d. 1340/1921-2).[25]

Notes

  1. Ṭāliqānī, Partuwī az nahj al-balāgha, p. 128.
  2. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 287.
  3. Rāwandī, Minhāj al-barāʿa, vol. 1, p. 133.
  4. Madanī, al-Ṭarāz al-awwal, vol. 2, p. 61.
  5. Muṭarrizī, al-Mughrib, vol. 1, p. 324.
  6. Ḥusaynī al-Khaṭīb, Maṣādir nahj al-balāgha, vol. 1, p. 336.
  7. Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 7, p. 109-115.
  8. Ṭāliqānī, Partuwī az nahj al-balāgha, p. 128.
  9. Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ nahj al-balāgha, vol. 1, p. 205.
  10. Ṣadūq, ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ, vol. 1, p. 150.
  11. Ṣadūq, Maʿānī l-akhbār, p. 361.
  12. Mufīd, al-Irshād, vol. 1, p. 287.
  13. Mufīd, al-Masʾalatān fī l-naṣṣ ʿalā ʿAlī, p. 28.
  14. Mufīd, al-Jamal, p. 62.
  15. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 21.
  16. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi Nahj al-balāgha, p. 22-23.
  17. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 32.
  18. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 32.
  19. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 32.
  20. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 32.
  21. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 32.
  22. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 33.
  23. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 33.
  24. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 38.
  25. Ustādī, Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha, p. 55.

References

  • Amīnī, ʿAbd al-Ḥusayn al-. Al-Ghadīr. Qom: Markaz al-Ghadīr li-l-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyya, 1416 AH.
  • Ḥusaynī al-Khaṭīb, ʿAbd al-Zahrā. Maṣādir Nahj al-balāgha wa asānīduh. Beirut: Dār al-Zahrā, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd. Sharḥ nahj al-balāgha. Edited by Muḥammad Abū l-Faḍl Ibrāhīm. Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿArabīyya, 1378 AH.
  • Madanī, ʿAlī Khān b. Aḥmad. Al-Ṭarāz al-awwal. Mashhad: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt li-Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth, 1384 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Irshād. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt l-Taḥqīq al-Turāth, 1414 AH.
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. al-Jamal. Qom: Maktabat al-Dāwarī, [n.d].
  • Mufīd, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Masʾalatān fī l-naṣ ʿalā ʿAlī. Edited by Muḥammad Riḍā Anṣārī. Beirut: [n.p], 1414 AH.
  • Muṭarrizī, Nāṣir b. ʿAbd al-Sayyid. Al-Mughrib. Edited by Maḥmūd al-Fākhūrī & ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Mukhtār. Aleppo: Maktabat Usāmat b. Zayd, 1979.
  • Rāwandī, Quṭb al-Dīn al-. Minhāj al-barāʿa. Edited by Sayyid ʿAbd al-Laṭīf al-Kūhkamarī. Qom: Maktaba Āyatullāh Marʿashī, 1406 AH.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ. Najaf, Manshūrāt al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1966.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Maʿānī l-akhbār. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Nashr al-Islāmī, 1379 Sh.
  • Ṭāliqānī, Maḥmūd. Partuwī az nahj al-balāgha. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Mahdī Jaʿfarī. Tehran: Sāzmān-i Intishārāt-i Wizārat-i Farhang, 1374 Sh.
  • Ustādī, Reḍā. Kitābnāma-yi nahj al-balāgha. Tehran: Bunyād-i Nahj al-balāgha, 1359 Sh.