Hadith Yawm al-Dar
Ḥadith Yawm al-Dār (Arabic: حدیث یوم الدار) known also as Ḥadith Yawm al-Indhār and Ḥadith al-'Ashira is a hadith from the Prophet (s) in which he asks his kinsmen to accept his call to Islam and he declares Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as his immediate successor. According to sources of history, hadiths and Qur'anic exegesis, the story has occurred in the third year of his bi'that or the first revelation when he was required by verse 214 of Sura al-Shu'ara, known as the Verse of Indhar or Warning, to call his close kinsmen to Islam. The hadith is one of the of evidences appealed to by Imamiyya scholars of kalam to show the immediate succession of the Prophet (s) by Imam Ali (a).
"Yawm" (Arabic: یوم) means day. It is also used in Arabic to refer to an event, such as Yawm al-Jamal which means the event or war of Jamal. And "dar" (Arabic: دار) means house; and in this context it refers to the Prophet (s)'s house. Thus the phrase means the event of the Prophet (s)'s house. It has also been referred to as "Bad' al-Da'wa" (Arabic: بدء الدعوة) which means the beginning of the invitation, and "Yawm al-Indhar" (Arabic: یوم الإنذار) which means the event of warning. In some sources of history and hadiths, the event of 'Uthman b. Affan's murder has also been referred to as "Yawm al-Dar".
According to sources of Islamic history and Qur'anic exegesis, when the verse of Indhar was revealed to the Prophet (s) three years after Bi'tha/612, the Prophet (s) ordered Ali b. Abi Talib (a) to provide some meal and invite the sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib to a banquet so that he calls them to Islam. Around 40 people, including Abu Talib, Hamza, and Abu Lahab went to the meeting. It has been said that there was not much food, but everyone felt full while nothing was consumed of the food. Abu Lahab said: "Muhammad has performed magic!" These words dissuaded the Prophet (s) from expressing his call, and the meeting finished without any result. By the Prophet (s)'s order, Ali (a) was once again commissioned to prepare a banquet. In the second or third attempt, after having the food, the Prophet (s) said:
- O' the sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib! I swear to God that I do not know any youth among Arabs who brought for his tribe something better than what I brought to you; I have brought to you the best in this world and in the afterlife, and God has ordered me to call you to it. So which of you assists me in this mission so that I make him my brother and my successor and my caliph among you?
Nobody responded to him. But Ali (a) who was the youngest of all said: "O' the prophet! I will assist you". The Prophet (s) said: "this is my brother and my successor among you. Listen to him and obey him".
Everyone got up and told Abu Talib with smirk: "Muhammad has ordered you to obey your son and listen to him".
- Disagreement about the place of the event: according to all sources, the Prophet (s) warned his kinsmen in this event, but there is disagreement about the place where the event occurred. According to some hadiths in Sunni sources, after the verse was revealed, the Prophet (s) went up the Safa hill, warned people and called them to Islam. However, according to most of Shiite sources and many Sunni sources, the event occurred in the Prophet (s)'s house and Ali (a) was appointed as the Prophet (s)'s successor.
- Disagreement about the words of the Prophet (s): according to 'Allama Amini, in addition to the above account of the event, there are six other accounts of the Prophet (s)'s words in the story:
- "Who will pledge me his allegiance in order to be my brother and companion and your guardian (waliyyukum)?" In this account, the word "my caliph (successor)" does not appear, but the word "waliyyukum" (your guardian) appears which does not figure in the previous account. This account supports the first.
- "Which of you likes to be my brother and my minister and my successor and my caliph in my people (umma) and the guardian of all believers? … O' God! Fill his heart with knowledge and understanding and wisdom. He then told Abu Talib: O' Aba Talib! Listen to your son and obey him, since God has given him a position to His Prophet like that of Aaron to Moses". This account does not only support the second account, but also refers to hadith al-manzila, emphasizing the immediate succession of Imam Ali (a).
- "Who will be my brother and my minister and my friend and my successor and my caliph in my household and will pay my debts?" This reinforces the previous account.
- "God has never chosen a prophet unless He also has chosen for him a brother and a minister and an heir and a successor and a caliph from his household. Now which of you stands and pledges me his allegiance in order to be my brother and my heir and my minister and my successor and be to me like Aron to Moses, except that there is no prophet after me?" This account reinforces the first account, in addition to involving the content of hadith al-manzila.
- "So which of you pledges me his allegiance in order to be my brother and my companion and my heir?" This account does not involve the phrase "my caliph ", but it has "my heir" instead.
- "I call you to two words which are light on the tongue, but are heavy on the scale: testifying that there is no god except Allah and that I am the messenger of Allah, so whoever accepts my call to this mission and assists me in this and takes care of the job will be my brother and my successor and my minister and my heir and my caliph after me". This account is also explicit that Ali (a) is the Prophet (s)'s immediate caliph .
This hadith is one of the most important hadiths in favor of Imam Ali (a)'s immediate succession of the Prophet (s); it was appealed to by many Shiite scholars of kalam. Imam Ali (a) himself has appealed to this hadith against his opponents.
Al-Shaykh al-Mufid has appealed to the Yawm al-dar hadith in his interpretation of the word "mawla" in hadith of Ghadir and the proof of Imam Ali (a)'s caliphate and wilaya. Like other Shiite scholars of kalam, he believes that Imam Ali (a)'s wilaya and caliphate have not been mentioned only in Ghadir, but have also been mentioned on other occasions, one of which is Yawm al-dar. According to him, many Shiite and Sunni scholars of hadith have cited this hadith so frequently that it counts as a mustafid hadith.
- Ibn Abī l-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ Nahj al-balāgha, vol. 2, p. 166; Ḥillī, Nahj al-ḥaq, p. 302; Mufīd, al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtāra, p. 96.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 2, p. 279; Ḥaskānī, Shawāhid al-tanzīl, vol. 1, p. 543.
- Ibn Athīr, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 60-63; Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 3, p. 50-54. Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qurʾān, vol. 6, p. 151-153.
- Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 24, p. 536.
- See: Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 279-280.
- See: Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 3, p. 398.
- Hilālī, Kitāb Sulaym b. Qays, vol. 2, p. 779.
- Thaʿlabī, al-Kashf wa l-bayān, vol. 7, p. 182.
- Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 283.
- Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 1, p. 217.
- Baghawī, Maʿālim al-tanzīl, vol. 3, p. 481.
- See: Mufīd, al-Fuṣūl al-mukhtāra, p. 96; Ibn Ṭāwūs, al-Ṭarāʾif, vol. 1, p. 21.
- See: Amīnī, al-Ghadīr, vol. 2, p. 279-280.
- Mufīd, Risālat fī maʿna l-mawlā, p. 39-40.
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