This article is featured on November 14, 2016. For other featured articles click here.
Good article since November 14, 2016
Priority: b, Quality: a

Hujr b. 'Adi

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search

Sahaba
Hujr b. 'Adi
حرم حجر.jpg
Shrine of Hujr b. 'Adi
Personal Information
Kunya Abu 'Abd al-Rahman
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Death/Martyrdom 51 or 52 or 53/671, 672 or 673
Cause of Death/Martyrdom Protest against the law of cursing Imam 'Ali (a)
Burial Place Marj 'Adhra, Syria
Religious Information
Known for Among companions of Imam Ali (a)
Notable Roles Head of Kinda, Hadarmut, Quda'a and Mahra tribes, one of commanders of Imam Ali's (a) army.
Other Activities Participating in the Islamic conquests, battles of Siffin, Jamal and Nahrawan

First Imam of Shi'a
'Ali (a)


Life
Event of GhadirLaylat al-MabitYawm al-DarSuccession of the Prophet (s)Timeline


Heritage
Nahj al-BalaghaGhurar al-hikamAl-Shiqshiqiyya SermonHoly Shrine


Excellences
Excellences of Ahl al-Bayt (a)Al-Wilaya VerseAhl al-Dhikr VerseUli l-Amr VerseAl-Tathir VerseAl-Mubahala VerseAl-Mawadda VerseAl-Sadiqin VerseHadith Madinat al-'IlmHadith al-ThaqalaynHadith al-RayatHadith al-SafinaHadith al-Kisa'Al-Ghadir SermonHadith al-ManzilaHadith Yawm al-DarHadith Sadd al-AbwabHadith al-Wisaya


Companions
'Ammar b. YasirMalik al-AshtarAbu Dhar al-Ghifari'Ubayd Allah b. Abi Rafi'Hujr b. 'Adiothers


Ḥujr b. ʿAdī b. Jabala al-Kindī (Arabic: حُجر بن عدي بن جبلة الکندي), was one of the companions of the Prophet (s) and one of the elite companions of Imam 'Ali (a), and was one of the noblemen and wise of Kufa.

He had an important role in many battles such as Jamal, Siffin, and Nahrawan. He was martyred in the way of supporting Imam 'Ali (a) by Mu'awiya.

According to al-Mas'udi, he was the first Muslim to enter Maraj 'Adhra' -in time of the Islamic conquests- and was the first Muslim to be martyred there.

The killing of Hujr and his men caused the reaction of Imam al-Husayn (a), and even some of the nearest entourage of Mu'awiya like Malik b. Hubayra.

In 2013, Wahhabis of Jabhat al-Nusra demolished the grave of Hujr and exhumed his body and took it to an unknown location.

Lineage and Kunya

Hujr b. 'Adi b. Mu'awiya b. Jabala al-Kindi al-Kufi, his kunya was Abu 'Abd al-Rahman and was famous as "Hujr al-Khayr" and Hujr b. Adbar (Adbar was the epithet of his father). In some sources, his lineage is mentioned as Hujr b. 'Adi b. Bajla.[1]

Status

Hujr and his brother, Hani, converted to Islam in the time of the Prophet (s), and Hujr was one of the noble of his tribe.[2]

Hujr b. 'Adi was one of the great companions of the Prophet (s) who was famous for his asceticism, piety, and worship.

He is considered as worshiper and trustworthy in 'ilm al-rijal, he had only narrated hadiths from Imam 'Ali (a).[3]

In Islamic Conquests

Hujr participated in Islamic conquests, including the Battle of Qadisiyya (14, 15, or 16/635, 636, 637, or 638).[4] In the Battle of Jalawla' (16 or 17 or 19/637, 638, 639, 640, or 641), he was the commander of the right wing of the army of Muslims.[5]

He was also present in the conquest of Syria and he was one of the army which conquered 'Adhra' (or Maraj 'Adhra'); in a report he is considered as the conqueror of 'Adhra'.[6]

Caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a)

After his presence in the conquests, he stayed in Kufa.[7] After the beginning of the caliphate of Imam 'Ali (a), he wanted to replace Ash'ath b. Qays with Hujr, as the head of the Kinda tribe; but Hujr apologized for he would not accept the leadership till Ash'ath b. Qays is alive.[8]

Battle of Jamal
Main article: Battle of Jamal

Before the Battle of Jamal, when Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, the governor of Kufa, was preventing people from supporting Imam 'Ali (a); Imam al-Hasan (a) with Hujr b. 'Adi and 'Ammar b. Yasir, went to the Mosque of Kufa, and forced Abu Musa al-Ash'ari out of the mosque and encouraged people to support Imam 'Ali (a). Imam 'Ali (a) assigned Hujr as the commander of Kinda, Hadramut, Quda'a, and Mahra tribes in the battle.[9]

Battle of Siffin
Main article: Battle of Siffin

In the Battle of Siffin (37/657) was one of the commanders of the army of Imam 'Ali (a) and the head of the combatants of Kinda tribe.[10]

Arbitration
Main article: Arbitration

In the arbitration in the Battle of Siffin, Hujr was one of the witnesses of the agreement between 'Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and 'Amr b. al-'As.[11]

Battle of Nahrawan
Main article: Battle of Nahrawan

In the Battle of Nahrawan (38/658) he was the commander of the right wing of the army of Imam 'Ali (a) against Khawarij.[12]

When Mu'awiya sent Dahhak b. Qays to attack the nomads of Iraq and make insecurity; Imam 'Ali (a) sent Hujr with 4000 combatants to confront them. Hujr chased them to Tadmur, and defeated them.[13]

Caliphate of Imam al-Hasan (a)

After the martyrdom of Imam 'Ali (a) and beginning of Imam al-Hasan's (a) caliphate, and his war with Mu'awiya, the circumstances made Imam al-Hasan (a) to accept the peace with Mu'awiya; Hujr was one of the first that met with Imam al-Hasan (a) and objected the decision on peace with Mu'awiya, and tried to persuade Imam al-Hasan (a) to continue the fight; Imam al-Hasan (a) answered: "the tendency of the people of Iraq is to the peace", so he had acceded to the peace to protect the life of Shi'as.

After that, Hujr met with Imam al-Husayn (a) and proposed his view about continuing the war with Mu'awiya, and Imam al-Husayn (a) told him to follow Imam al-Hasan (a).[14]

Rule of Mu'awiya

Opposition to the Cursing of Imam 'Ali (a)

When Mughira b. Shu'ba (the governor of Kufa in the rule of Mu'awiya) started to curse Imam 'Ali (a) over the pulpit by the order of Mu'awiya, Hujr and 'Amr b. Hamiq with a number of their men opposed and stoned him.[15] Mughira tried to bring Hujr near to him by sending him money.[16]

Capture

In year 50/670 Ziyad b. Abih, gained the rule of Kufa, in addition to the rule of Basra, by the order of Mu'awiya. He, warned Hujr about supporting 'Ali (a) and criticizing Mu'awiya, but he still was calling people against Mu'awiya.[17]

When Ziyad was in Basra, Hujr and his men stoned 'Amr b. Hurayth, the deputy of Ziyad in Kufa, because he was cursing Imam 'Ali (a). When Ziyad was informed about the event came to Kufa immediately and captured Hujr and his men.[18]

In the Way to Syria

Ziyad sent the captured with 100 men of his army to Mu'awiya, and in his letter to Mu'awiya wrote that Hujr and his men have defied the ijma' about cursing [[|Imam 'Ali (a)|Abu Turab]] [Imam 'Ali (a)] and refused the order of the caliph. He also attached the testifying of some of the elite of Kufa about the explicit opposition of Hujr to cursing Imam 'Ali (a).[19]

Martyrdom

The mausoleum of Hujr before being demolished by Wahhabi terrorists

When Hujr and his men reached 'Adhra' (Maraj 'Adhra'), 25 Km from Damascus, Mu'awiya issued their death warrant,[20] but with the intervention of some,[21] Hujr and his men were given the chance to save their lives by cursing Imam 'Ali (a); seven accepted,[22] but Hujr and six of his men rejected and were killed.

Al-Ya'qubi, wrote the number of the killed as 7 but had only named 6, among them Hujr.[23]

According to al-Mas'udi, seven saved themselves with cursing Imam 'Ali (a) and the other seven refused to curse Imam 'Ali (a) and were killed.[24] They were martyred beside graves they had dug, and beside open kafans (shrouds).[25]

Before Martyrdom

Hujr and his men spent the night before their martyrdom in prayer and supplication, also he prayed two rak'as before his martyrdom.[26]

Aisha sent someone to prevent Mu'awiya from killing Hujr but her courier reached Mu'awiya after the martyrdom of Hujr.[27]

According to al-Mas'udi,[28] Hujr was the first Muslim to be killed with handcuff and in captivity. He was the first Muslim who entered 'Adhra', in the time of Islamic conquests, and was the first Muslim to be killed there.[29]

Date of Martyrdom

There are different reports about the date of his martyrdom, al-Tabari and Ibn Athir mentioned 51/671, al-Ya'qubi 52/672, and Ibn Qutayba and al-Mas'udi 53/673 as the year of his martyrdom.[30] In a weak report, his martyrdom is mentioned in the year 50/670.[31]

According to Ibn Qutayba, later the two sons of Hujr b. 'Adi, 'Ubayd Allah and 'Abd al-Rahman who had tendency to Shi'a, were captivated and killed by Mus'ab b. al-Zubayr.[32]

Reactions against the killing of Hujr

Reaction of the Entourage of Mu'awiya

The killing of Hujr and his men even made some of the nearest men of Mu'awiya object it. Malik b. Hubayra, told Mu'awiya that he had committed a dirty crime and Hujr had not done anything that deserve killing, Mu'awiya answered that he wanted to uproot the riot.

Reaction of Imam al-Husayn (a)

Hearing the report about the martyrdom of Hujr was very hard for Imam al-Husayn (a), and in a letter to Mu'awiya, he considered the killing of Hujr as one of the evil deeds of Mu'awiya.[33]

Reaction of Aisha

The killing of Hujr even raised the objection of Aisha, when Mu'awiya answered that his intention was the good of people, Aisha said:

"I heard the Prophet (s): some people will be killed at 'Adhra' that Allah and the inhabitants of the heavens will be angered for them."[34]

Mausoleum

The mausoleum of Hujr after being demolished by Wahhabis; his body was exhumed

The mausoleum of Hujr was famous in Maraj 'Adhra'[35] and people would go there.

In May 2, 2013, Wahhabis of Jabhat al-Nusra demolished the mausoleum of Hujr and exhumed his body and took it to an unknown location.

Notes

  1. Amin, A'yan al-shi'a, vol.4 p.569
  2. Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol.1 p.385
  3. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.220; Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madina Dimashq, vol.12 p.210
  4. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.217; Ibn Athir, Asad al-ghaba, vol.1 p.461; Ibn Qutayba, Al-Ma'arif, p.334
  5. Baladhari, Futuh al-Buldan, p.264; Tabari, Tarikh, vol.4 p.27
  6. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madina Dimashq, vol.12 p.207,210-211
  7. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.145
  8. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.224
  9. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.4 p.485; Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.145-146; Mufid, Al-Jamal wa al-nusra, p.255-256,320
  10. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madina Dimashq, vol.12 p.210; Ibn Muzahim, Waq'a siffin, p.103-104, 195, 205, 243
  11. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.54; Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.195-196; Ibn Muzahim, Waq'a siffin, p.506-507
  12. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.85; Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.210
  13. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.135; Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.195-196
  14. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.220
  15. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.254; Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.230
  16. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.223
  17. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.218; Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.230
  18. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.223; cf. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.218
  19. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.223-224; Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.230; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.219; Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.269-270
  20. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.219; Mas'udi, Muruj al-dhahab, vol.3 p.189
  21. Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.231
  22. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.275-278; cf. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.220
  23. Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.231
  24. Mas'udi, Murawwij, vol.3 p.188-189
  25. Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.231; Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.275-277
  26. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.275
  27. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.219-220; Ibn Athir, Asad al-ghaba, vol.1 p.462; Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.223-224
  28. Mas'udi, Murawwij, vol.3 p.188
  29. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol.6 p.217; Ibn Athir, Asad al-ghaba, vol.1 p.462; Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.231
  30. Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.253; Ibn Athir, Asad al-ghaba, vol.1 p.462; Ibn Qutayba, Al-Ma'arif, p.334; Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol.2 p.231; Mas'udi, Murawwij, vol.3 p.188
  31. Mas'udi, Murawwij, vol.3 p.190
  32. Ibn Qutayba, Al-Ma'arif, p.334
  33. Dinawari, al-Akhbar al-tiwal, p.223-224; Tabari, Tarikh, vol.5 p.279; Kashshi, Ikhtiyar ma'rifa al-rijal, p.99
  34. Suyuti, al-Jami' al-saghir, vol.2 p.61; Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madina Dimashq, vol.12 p.226; Majlisi, Bihar, vol.18 p.124
  35. Ibn Athir, Asad al-ghaba, vol.1 p.462

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from حجر بن عدی in Farsi Wikishia.
  • Amin, Muhsin al-. 'A'yan al-Shi'a. Beirut: : Dar al-Ta'aruf, 1403/1983
  • Ibn Athir, 'Ali b. Muhammad, Asad al-ghaba fi ma'rifa al-sahaba. Cairo: 1970-1973
  • Ibn Sa'd, Muhammad, Al-Tabaqat al-kubra. Beirut
  • Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madina Dimashq. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr
  • Ibn Qutayba, Al-Ma'arif, Cairo: Tharwa 'Akasha, 1960
  • Baladhari, Ahmad b. Yahya al-, Futuh al-Buldan. Leiden: Leiden
  • Tabari, Muhammad b. Jarir al-, Tarikh al-umam wa al-Muluk . Beirut
  • Dinawari, Ahmad b. Dawud, al-Akhbar al-tiwal. Cairo: 'Abd al-Mun'im 'Amir, 1960
  • Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad al-, Al-Jamal wa al-nusra li sayyid al-'itra fi harb al-Basra. Qom: 'Ali Mir Sharifi, 1374
  • Ibn Muzahim, Nasr, Waq'a siffin. Cairo: 'Abd al-Salam Muhammad Harun, 1382
  • Ya'qubi, Ahmad b. Abi Ya'qub al-, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi.
  • Mas'udi, 'Ali b. Husayn al-, Muruj al-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawhar. Beirut.
  • Kashshi, Muhammad b. 'Umar al-, Ikhtiyar ma'rifa al-rijal. Mashhad: Hasan Mustafawi, 1348
  • Suyuti, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr, al-Jami' al-saghir. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-, Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar.