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Umm Ayman

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Sahaba
Umm Ayman
Personal Information
Full Name Baraka bt. Tha'laba b. 'Amr
Well-Known Relatives Zayd b. al-Haritha, Usama b. Zayd
Muhajir/Ansar Muhajir
Place(s) of Residence Mecca, Medina
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas Battle of Uhud and Battle of Khaybar
Migration to Medina, Abyssinia
Other Activities Bearing witness that the Prophet (s) has given Fadak to Fatima (a)

Umm Ayman (Arabic: امّ ایمن) -is the kunya of Baraka bt. Tha'laba b. 'Amr- was one of the Companions of the Prophet (s). She was freed by the Prophet (s) and was the mother of Usama b. Zayd. The Prophet (s) counted her among the women of Paradise.

After the demise of the Prophet (s) and confiscation of Fadak by Abu Bakr, she was the only person who bore witness with Imam 'Ali (a) that the Prophet (s) has given Fadak to Fatima (a).

Lineage

Baraka bt. Tha'laba b. 'Amr, known as Umm Ayman, was the Abyssinian[1] female servant of 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib (the father of the Prophet (s)).[2] After the demise of Abd Allah, the Prophet (s) inherited her from his father.[3]

Taking Care of Muhammad (s) in His Childhood

After that Amina passed away in Abwa', Umm Ayman looked after Muhammad (s) until he arrived in Mecca.[4] She also took care of him for years until he grew up.[5] 'Abd al-Muttalib told Umm Ayman to take care of his grandson (Muhammad), because the Followers of the Books (Jews and Christians) think that my grandson will be the prophet of this nation.

Marriage and Children

When the Prophet (s) wanted to marry Khadija,[6] he (s) liberated Umm Ayman[7] and she married 'Ubayd b. Zayd al-Khazraji and she gave birth to Ayman. That is why she is called "Umm Ayman" (the mother of Ayman). After a while, Ubayd passed away; she married Zayd b. al-Haritha,[8] after this marriage, she gave birth to Usama b. Zayd.[9]

Immigration

Umm Ayman was among the first people who converted to Islam and later emigrated to Medina.[10] It is said that she was also among the Muslims who emigrated to Abyssinia.[11]

Participating in Battles

She was present in the Battle of Uhud and gave water to worriers[12] and treated their injuries.[13] She also accompanied the Prophet (s) at the Battle of Khaybar.[14]

Relationship with Ahl al-Bayt (a)

The Prophet (s) liked her very much. It is said that he sometimes called her "mother".[15] There are some narrations about her elite status in the Prophet's (s) eyes. The Prophet (s) went to her house to visit her. Also, Abu Bakr and 'Umar -following the Prophet (s)- did this.[16] In some hadith sources, there is a chapter about Umm Ayman's virtues.[17]

In some Shi'a sources, she was mentioned with honor and respect. The Prophet (s) introduced her as one of the heavenly women. After the demise of the Prophet and confiscation of Fadak by Abu Bakr, she was the only person who bore witness with Imam Ali (a) that the Prophet (s) has given Fadak to Fatima (a).[18]

She has narrated some hadiths and narrators such as,[19] Anas b. Malik, Abu Yazid al-Madani and Hanash b. 'Abd Allah al-San'ani have narrated hadiths from her.[20]

Demise

The exact date of Umm Ayman's demise is unknown. Some said that she passed away about 5 months after the demise of the Prophet (s).[21] But according to Ibn Athir's report, she was alive during the caliphate of Umar and Abu Bakr.[22]

Notes

  1. Zahrī, al-Maghāzī al-nabawīyya, p. 177; Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 25, p. 86.
  2. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 25, p. 86.
  3. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 223; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 96.
  4. Ibn Qutayba, al-Maʿārif, p. 150.
  5. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 8, p. 360.
  6. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 25, p. 86; Ḥalabī, al-Sīra al-Ḥalabīyya, vol. 1, p. 77.
  7. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 223; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 96.
  8. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 61; vol. 8, p. 223; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 471.
  9. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 4, p. 61; vol. 8, p. 223; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 471.
  10. Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 269; Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1793.
  11. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1793.
  12. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 241-250; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 223.
  13. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 225.
  14. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 2, p. 684-685.
  15. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 8, p. 223.
  16. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 4, p. 1793; Muslim b. al-Ḥajjāj, Ṣaḥīh Muslim, vol. 4, p. 1907.
  17. Muslim b. al-Ḥajjāj, Ṣaḥīh Muslim, vol. 4, p. 1907-1908.
  18. Ṭabrisī, al-Iḥtijāj, vol. 1, p. 121-122.
  19. Ṭabarānī, al-Muʿjam al-kabīr, vol. 25, p. 87-91; Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, vol. 45, p. 357.
  20. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb, vol. 12, p. 459.
  21. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 304.
  22. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 6, p. 304.

References

  • Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Musnad. Edited by Shuʿayb al-Arnāʾūṭ. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Risāla, 1421 AH.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥamīd Allāh. Cairo: [n.p], 1959.
  • Ḥalabī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Al-Sīra al-Ḥalabīyya. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1427 AH.
  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb. Edited by ʿAlī Mūhammad al-Bajāwī. Cairo: [n.p], 1380 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba fī maʿrifat al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Edited by ʿĀdil Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd & ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Muʿawwaḍ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1415 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Tahdhīb al-tahdhīb. Hyderabad: [n.p], 1327 AH.
  • Ibn Qutayba, ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Maʿārif. Edited by Tharwat ʿAkāsha. Cairo: [n.p], 1388 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 1405 AH.
  • Muslim b. al-Ḥajjāj. Ṣaḥīh Muslim. Edited by Fuʾād ʿAbd al-Bāqī. Beirut: Dār al-Ḥadīth, 1412 AH.
  • Ṭabarānī, Sulaymān b. Aḥmad al-. Al-Muʿjam al-kabīr. Edited by Ḥamdī ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Salafī. Cairo: [n.p], 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-. Al-Iḥtijāj. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Kharsān. Najaf: Dār al-Nuʿmān, 1386 AH.
  • Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Edited by Marsden Jones. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1409 AH.
  • Zahrī, ʿAbd Allāh al-. Al-Maghāzī al-nabawīyya. Edited by Suhayl al-Zakkār. Damascus: [n.p], 1401 AH.