'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib

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'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib
Father of the Prophet (s)
Full Name 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim
Kunya "Abu Qasham", "Abu Muhammad", and "Abu Ahmad"
Epithet "Dhabih" (the sacrifice)
Religious Affiliation Monotheist
Lineage Banu Hashim
Well-known Relatives the Prophet (s), 'Abd al-Muttalib, Abu Talib, Amina
Place of Birth Mecca
Place of Residence Mecca
Death/Martyrdom Few months after the Prophet's birthday
Cause of
Death/Martyrdom
Illness
Burial Place "Dar al-Nabigha"
Era Before Islam
Known for chosen as the sacrifice of 'Abd al-Muttalib

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: عبداللّه بن عبدالمُطَّلِب), is the father of the Prophet Muhammad (s), as the historians had said, in the vow of 'Abd al-Muttalib to sacrifice one of his sons for Allah, his name was drawn, but at last 100 camels slaughtered in his place. He passed away, before –or according to some narrations, a little after- the birth of his son, the Prophet Muhammad (s). Unlike Sunni scholars, most of the Shi'a scholars believe that he was a monotheist.

Lineage, epithets, and agnomen

'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim was the last son of 'Abd al-Muttalib. 'Abd Allah, Abu Talib (the father of Imam 'Ali (a)), Zubayr and 5 of the daughters of 'Abd al-Muttalib was from one mother; their mother was Fatima bt. 'Amr b. 'A'idh al-Makhzumi; one of the 5 Fatimas in the lineage of the Prophet (s).[1]

His epithet (kunya) is "Abu Qasham", "Abu Muhammad", and "Abu Ahmad"; and his agnomen was "Dhabih" (the sacrifice).

Family tree of the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qusay
400 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd al-'Uzza
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Manaf
430 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd al-Dar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asad
 
 
 
Muttalib
 
 
Hashim
464 CE
 
 
 
Nawfal
 
'Abd Shams
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khuwaylid
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd al-Muttalib
497 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Awwam
 
Khadija (a)
 
Hamza
 
 
'Abd Allah
b. 545 CE
 
 
 
Abu Talib
 
Al-'Abbas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Zubayr
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad (s)
b. 571 CE
 
'Ali (a)
b. 599 CE
 
'Aqil
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fatima (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muslim
 
'Abd Allah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan (a)
b. 625 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Husayn (a)
b. 626 CE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sacrifice

When 'Abd al-Muttalib was digging for the Zamzam well, he had only one son; after he discovered the Zamzam well, Quraysh opposed his ownership of the well, and stated that they must have a share of the well. When he saw that he had only one son in order to defend himself, made a vow (nadhr) that if Allah will give him 10 sons, he will sacrifice one of them in the way of Allah, by Ka'ba. When his son's count reached 10; he draw lot in order to choose one of his sons to be sacrificed and the name of 'Abd Allah became drawn. But people opposed the slaughter. So they decided to draw between 10 camels and 'Abd Allah, if the 10 camels became drawn, they will be slaughtered in place of him, if 'Abd Allah became drawn, 10 more camels are added, and the draw is repeated. At last, when the count of camels reached 100, the camels were drawn, 'Abd al-Muttalib repeated the lot three times and in all of them the camels were drawn; after 'Abd al-Muttalib became sure that Allah had accepted the camels in place of 'Abd Allah, 100 camels slaughtered in place of 'Abd Allah and given to the poor.[2]

The Prophet (s) mentioned the story in a hadith: "I am the son of the two sacrifices". Imam al-Rida (a) says about the hadith: "the two sacrifices are Isma'il and 'Abd Allah".[3]

Marriage

In the day of sacrifice, after the sacrifice of the camels, 'Abd al-Muttalib went straight to Wahb b. 'Abd Manaf, who was the head of the Banu Zuhra tribe, and married his daughter, Amina bt. Wahb, to 'Abd Allah. She was one of the greatest women of Quraysh.[4]

According to some, the marriage took place after a year from the sacrifice.[5]

Belief

Some of Sunni scholars recognized him as a pagan, but most of the Shi'a scholars believe that he, and all of the ancestors of the Prophet (s) to Adam (a), were believers in God and were monotheists.[6]

Imam al-Sadiq (a) says: "Jibra'il came to Muhammad and said: O Muhammad, God sends his regards to you and says: "I have withheld the fire of hell from the loin begot you and the womb bore you and the skirt raised you; the loin is the loin of 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib and the womb beared you is Amina bt. Wahb and the skirt raised you is the skirt of Abu Talib -and according to Ibn Faddal- and Fatima bt. Asad".[7]

Demise

A little after his marriage, 'Abd Allah went to Syria with the trade caravan of Quraysh, in the way back he became ill and stayed in the Banu 'Adi b. Najjar tribe in Yathrib, when the caravan of Quraysh reached Mecca and 'Abd al-Muttalib asked them about 'Abd Allah, sent his eldest son, Harith, to Yathrib, but when he reached Yathrib, 'Abd Allah had passed away.

'Abd Allah demised in his 25, between the uncles of his father, in the tribe of Banu Najjar, in a house named "Dar al-Nabigha".[8]

Most of the historians believe that he demised before the birth of the Prophet (s); but Ya'qubi referring to a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a), considered his demise 2 months after the birth of the Prophet (s), also Al-Kulayni chose this opinion,[9] and also mentions the opinion of a year after the birth of the Prophet (s).

Heritage of 'Abd Allah was a maid named Umm Ayman, 5 camels, a herd of sheep, a sword, and some money.[10]

Notes

  1. Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil, vol.2 p.33
  2. Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol.1 p.103
  3. Majlisi, Bihar, vol.12 p.122
  4. Ibn Hisham, Al-Sira, vol.1 p.156
  5. Ayati, Tarikh-i payambar, p.42
  6. 'Amili, Al-Sahih, vol.2 p.75
  7. Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.1, p. 446.
  8. Ibn Athir, Al-Kamil, vol.2 p.10
  9. Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.1 p.439
  10. Majlisi, Bihar, vol.15 p.125

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from عبدالله بن عبدالمطلب in Farsi Wikishia.
  • Ibn Athir. 1385/1965. Al-Kamil fi al-tarikh. Beirut: Dar Sadir
  • Ibn Hisham. 1375/1996. Al-Sira al-nabawiyya. Tehran: Kitabchi publication
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. n.d. Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar. Dar ihya' al-turath al-'arabi
  • Ayati, Muhammad Ibrahim. 1378/1999. Tarikh-i payambar-i islam (s). Tehran: Tehran university
  • 'Amili, Sayyid Ja'far Murtada. 1427/2006. Al-Sahih min sira al-nabi al-a'zam. Beirut: Al-Markaz al-islami liddirasat
  • Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya'qub al-. Al-Kafi.

External Links