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Mustahabb

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Furu' al-Din

Prayer
Wajib: Daily PrayersEssentials of PrayerFriday PrayerEid PrayerAl-Ayat PrayerFuneral PrayerIstijari Prayer

Mustahab: Night PrayerGhufayla PrayerJa'far al-Tayyar Prayer


Other types of worship
FastingKhumsZakatHajjJihadEnjoining the goodForbidding the evilTawalliTabarri


Rulings on Tahara
Wudu'GhuslTayammumNajisMutahhiratTadhkiyaDhabh


Civil Law
WikalaWasiyyaDimanKifalaIrth


Family Law
MarriageTemporary marriagePolygamyDivorceMahrBreastfeedingIntercourseSexual gratificationAdopted childFormula for marriage


Criminal Law
JudgmentDiyatHududQisasTa'zirHoarding


Economic Laws
Bay'IjaraQardRiba


Other Laws
HijabSadaqaNadhrTaqlidFoods and drinksWaqf


See also
FiqhRulings of Shari'aManual of Islamic lawPubertyWajibHaramMustahabMubahMakruh

Mustaḥabb (Arabic:المستحب) is a jurisprudential term referring to actions and practices that according to Islamic laws doing them is better than leaving them, yet they are not obligatory. Night prayer (Salat al-Layl), Daily Nawafil (daily mustahabb prayers), mustahab fastings, supplications, and many other practices are counted among mustahabb acts.

Terminology

Lexicologically, Istihbab (recommendation) is an Arabic word derived from Hubb (to like) and means to like or to prefer something. The term is used in its lexical meaning in the Qur'an and hadiths. In jurisprudential terminology, mustahabb refers to an action that according to Islamic laws, doing it is recommended, yet leaving it is permissible.

Synonym Terms

Nadb (and Mandub), Nafl (and Nafila), Sunna and Tatawwu' convey a similar meaning to that of Istihbab (recommendation).

Jurisprudential Discussions

In almost all of Shi'a jurisprudential topics, Istihbab is used as one of al-Ahkam al-Khamsa (the Five Ruling Values). In the Principle of Jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh) it is discussed in chapters of al-Awamir (commands), al-Ḍid (opposite) and Muqaddamat al-Wajib (prerequisite of compulsory act).

Types

There are different types of mustahabb. Some of the most important ones are:

  • Al-mustahabb al-nafsi: is a mustahabb due to itself, such as mustahabb prayers and fastings.
  • Al-mustahabb al-ghayri: is a mustahabb that is not mustahabb due to itself, rather because of another act, such as ghusl for ziyarah.
  • Al-mustahabb al-'ayni : is a mustahabb that is recommended for each individual Muslim.
  • Al-mustahabb al-kifa'i : is a mustahabb that if one Muslim do that it is no longer recommended for others, such as Adhan announcing Salat time.
  • Al-mustahabb al-mu'akkad : A mustahabb that has been emphasized, such as Ghusl al-Jum'a.

Related Rulings

When a person starts a mustahabb it is disliked to not finish it, like mustahabb prayer. In some cases when a mustahabb action reach specific stage it is obligatory to finish it and the person is not allowed to leave it. Two well-known examples of this creed are mustahabb hajj and 'Umra that if a person starts each of them he must finish it. Another example is I'tikaf that if a person starts it and fasts the first two days he must fast the third day.

Well-known Mustahabbs

Mustahabb Prayers

One can hardly find a holy occasion in Islam with no mustahabb prayer. Many of these mustahabb prayers have been mentioned in Mafatih al-Jinan. Some of the most important mustahabb prayers are: the daily mustahabb prayers, the Night Prayer, Prayer of Ja'far al-Tayyar, Salat al-Istisqa' (asking for rain prayer), the prayer of the first day of lunar months.

Mustahabb Fasts

Fasting all the days in a year, except for days in which fasting is forbidden (like Eid al-Fitr) or disliked (like 'Ashura), is mustahabb. However, fasting in some days have been emphasized in Hadiths. Some of these days are:

Supplications

Although praying to God is not limited to specific words, it is recommended to pray to Him by supplications that have been narrated from the Infallibles (a). Some of these supplications are:

Other Mustahabbs

Some other acts that have been mentioned in Hadiths as Mustahabb are:

  • Reciting the Qur'an
  • Having Wudu constantly
  • Saying سبحان الله (glory be to God)
  • Saying ألحمدلله (all praises belong to God)
  • Saying لاإله الا الله (there is no god but God)
  • Saying لاحول و لا قوة إلا بالله (there is no might nor power except in God)
  • Giving Sadaqa (charity)
  • Ta'qibat al-Salat (after-prayer rituals)

References

  • The material for this article was mainly taken from مستحب in Farsi WikiShia.