Al-Wajib (fiqh)

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Al-Wājib (Arabic:الوااجب) is an Islamic jurisprudential term referring to an act that must be done, and abandoning it will cause Divine wrath and punishment. There are several categorizations for Wajib. The most important obligatory acts in Islam are known as Furu' al-Din, the most famous of which are ten.

Terminology

Literally, Wājib means essential or necessary. Technically, it is an act that must be performed, and abandoning it is a sin and causes Divine punishment.

Wujub is the ruling itself and Wajib is the act which is the subject of Wujub.

Types

Al-Wājib al-Taʿyīnī and al-Takhyīrī

  • Al-Wājib al-Taʿyīnī (الواجب التعيني) (without choice) is an obligatory act that has no substitute, such as daily Prayers.
  • Al-Wājib al-Takhyīri (الواجب التخيري) (with choice) is an obligatory act that has one or more substitute and one is free to choose between them, for example, according to the fatwa of some Marja's, one can choose between Salat al-Zuhr and Salat al-Jum'a on the day of Jum'a.

Al-Wājib al-ʿAynī and al-Kifa'ī

  • Al-Wājib al-ʿAyni (الواجب العيني) (individual) is an obligatory act that every individual Muslim must perform, such as Salat
  • Al-Wājib al-Kifa'i (الواجب الکفائي) (collective) is an obligatory act that if some Muslims perform it, that will suffice for others and they are no longer held responsible for performing it, such Ghusl al-Mayyit and burying a dead.

Al-Wājib al-Muwaqqat and Ghayr al-Muwaqqat

  • Al-Wājib al-Muwaqqat (الواجب الموقت) (with timing) is an obligatory act that must be done in a specific time such as Salat and Sawm
  • Al-Wājib Ghayr al-Muwaqqat (الواجب الغيرالموقت) (without timing) is an obligatory act that has no specific time such as being honest.

Al-Wājib al-Muwassaʿ and al-Muḍayyaq

  • Al-Wājib al-Muwassaʿ (الواجب الموسع) is a kind of al-Wājib al-Muwaqqat. It is an obligatory act that lasts for a fraction of the whole time that is allocated for performing it, such as daily Prayers.
  • Al-Wājib al-Muḍayyaq (الواجب المضيّق) is also a kind of al-Wājib al- Muwaqqat. It is an obligatory act that last for the whole time that is allocated to performing it, such as Sawm.

Al-Wājib al-Taʿabbudī and al-Tawassulī

  • Al-Wājib al-Taʿabbudi (الواجب التعبدي) (devotional) is an obligatory act that must be done with an intention of gaining proximity to God.
  • Al-Wājib al-Tawassulī (الواجب التوصلي) (non-devotional) is an obligatory act that does not require an intention of gaining proximity to God, such as washing Najis clothes for performing Salat.

Al-Wājib al-Nafsī and al-Ghayrī

  • Al-Wājib al-Nafsi (الواجب النفسي) (due to itself) is an obligatory act that is obligatory due to itself and not as a requisite of another obligatory act.
  • Al-Wājib al-Ghayrī (الواجب الغيري) (due to something else) is an obligatory act that is obligatory as a requisite of another obligatory act, such as Wudu that is wājib for performing Salat.


Famous Wajibs

Furuʿ al-Dīn

Main article: Furu' al-Din

The most important practical rulings of Islam are known as Furu' al-Din (branches/ancillaries of religion), which is according to majority of Faqihs consists of 10 famous acts of worship:

It seems that enumerating these ten acts of worship is because of their importance in the Qur'anic verses and hadiths, as according to aforementioned categorization obligatory acts are not confined to these ten cases and there are other rulings on various topics such as transactions, marriage, retaliation, judgment, … that are obligatory.

Some topics of Furu' al-Din are related to the relation between humankind and God and the duties, rulings and laws of human beings in this regard, such as Salat, Sawm and Hajj. There are other topics related to one's duties towards other humans and regulate human relations, such as Jihad, Zakat and Khums.

Obligatory Prayers

Daily Prayer are 17 rak'as. That is: two Rak'as Salat al-Fajr (Morning Prayer), four Rak'as Salat al-Zuhr (Noon Prayer), four Rak'as Salat al-'Asr (Afternoon Prayer), three Rak'as Salat al-Maghrib (Sunset Prayer) and four Rak'as Salat al-'Isha' (Evening Prayer). Traveling reduces the Prayers with four Rak'as to two Rak'as.

Salat al-Ayat (Signs Prayer) will become obligatory whenever some rare natural events, such as solar or lunar eclipse and earthquake, occur.

According to majority of Shi'a faqihs, the oldest son must perform Salat al-Qada' of his father (the obligatory Prayers that he missed) after the father's death. Moreover, some Faqihs said that the oldest son also must perform the Qada' Prayers of his mother.

Salat al-Mayyit (the dead's Prayer) is performed to the dead body of Muslims before the burial.

A Salat that has become obligatory for someone due to vowing, swearing an oath or being hired by another person for performing Prayers.

Salat al-Jum'a is obligatory (Wājib aTaʿyīnī) during the presence of an infallible Imam; however, during the Occultation period it is al-Wajib al-Takhiyri, i.e. one is allowed not to perform it.

Salat of an obligatory Tawaf

Salat al-Qada' (missed Prayer)


Obligatory Fasts

  • Sawm of the month of Ramadan
  • Sawm al-Qada'
  • Sawm al-Qada' of father (and mother)
  • Fasting the third day of I'tikaf
  • Sawm instead of the sacrifice in Hajj
  • Sawm as an atonement for violating vow or oath
  • Sawm as an atonement for deliberately leaving or breaking Sawm of the month of Ramadan.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from واجب in Farsi Wikishia.