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12. Dhu l-Hijja‎ 1. Muharram 2. Safar
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Lunar Hijri Calendar

Muḥarram al-Ḥarām (Arabic: محرم الحرام) is the first month of Hijri calendar. It is called "Muharram" (forbidden) because fighting is forbidden in this month. The importance of this month for Shi'a is because the event of Ashura' and the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) and his companions took place in this month. Every year, Shi'a commemorates the martyrdom of their Imam in this month by holding mourning sessions.


"Muharram al-haram" is the first month of Hijri calendar and one of the four Haram months in Islam and Pre-Islamic Arabian culture. It is called "Muharram" (forbidden) because fighting is forbidden in this month.[1]

Month of Mourning

After martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a) in this month, Muharram turned to the month of mourning for Shi'a. From the earlier years after Imam's martyrdom, the following infallible Imams (a) and Shi'a held mourning sessions in this month. For instance, Imam al-Rida (a) said, "When the month of Muharram arrived, no one would see my father laughing. Grief and sorrow was apparent on his face to the day of 'Ashura'. That day ('Ashura') was the day of his grief, sorrow and weeping. He said, 'To