Rajab

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Lunar Hijri Months

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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Muharram

Safar

Rabi' I

Rabi' II

Jumada I

Jumada II

Rajab

Sha'ban

Ramadan

Shawwal

Dhu l-Qa'da

Dhu l-Hijja

Rajab (Arabic: رَجَب) or Rajab al-Murajjab (Arabic: رَجَب المُرَجَّب) is the seventh month of the lunar year. Along with Dhu l-Qa'da, Dhu l-Hijja and Muharram, it counts as one of the haram months. According to hadiths, it is recommended to perform 'umra, fast, and worship God in this month.

The Prophet Muhammad (a) is cited as saying that "Rajab is God's month, Sha'ban is my month, and Ramadan is my people's month", and that "fasting one day in Rajab is like fasting one month".

The first Thursday night of the Rajab month is called Laylat al-Ragha'ib in which special practices are recommended by hadiths. The tradition of i'tikaf is practiced from 13th through 15th of this month—known as Ayyam al-Bid (the white days).

The most important historical event that took place in Rajab is the bi'that (the first revelation) of the Prophet (s). The other important events that occurred in this month include the birthdays of Imam al-Baqir (a), Imam al-Jawad (a), and Imam 'Ali (a), and the martyrdoms of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a).

It is supererogatory or recommended to visit the shrines of the Infallibles (a) in this month, especially visiting Imam al-Husayn (a) at the beginning and the middle of the month and visiting Imam al-Rida (a).

Appellation

The word "Rajab" literally means to honor and respect. Thus the month has been called so because it is honored and respected. According to lexicological sources, Arabs respected this month even before the emergence of Islam and avoided fighting therein.

The Rajab month is also called "Rajab al-Fard" (the lonely Rajab) because it is discontinuous with the rest of the haram months all of which are consecutive: Dhu l-Qa'da, Dhu l-Hajja, and Muharram. It is also called "Rajab al-Mudarr" because the tribe of Mudarr (who was one of the Prophet (s)'s ancestors) particularly respected this month. It is also called "Rajab al-Asamm", "Rajab al-Murajjab", "Rajab al-Haram", "Munsal al-Asinna" and "Munsal al-Al".

The Prophet (s) is quoted as saying with respect to the appellation of the month with "Rajab al-Asabb" (the pouring Rajab) and "Rajab al-Asamm" (the mute Rajab):

"the Rajab month is called "Asabb" because the divine mercy is poured on my people in this month, and it is called "Asamm" because it is forbidden to fight the polytheists in this month and it is one of the haram or prohibited months".

Historical Background

The Rajab month was particularly respected and honored by Arabs in the period of Jahiliyya; it was forbidden to fight, murder, plunder ,and start a camisado in this month, and they were committed to such prohibitions. This is why it was called "Rajab al-Asamm" (the mute Rajab). After the emergence of Islam, the month was yet more respected and deemed sacred.

Virtues

'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas is quoted as saying that when the Rajab month began, Muslims gathered around the Prophet (s). After praising God and mentioning the previous prophets, he said:

O' Muslims! A great, blessed month has spread its shadow on you; this is the month when the divine mercy pours on whoever worships God except a polytheist or a heretic. Verily there is a night in the Rajab month in which a vigilant who says prayers the whole night will have his or her body protected from the Hell; a thousand angels shake hands with him or her, and a thousand angels ask God for his or her forgiveness until the next year. [The Prophet (s) went on:] If a person fasts a day in the Rajab month, he or she will be protected from fears of the Dooms Day and will be saved from the Hell.

Divine Rewards for Worships

Fasting

Different divine rewards are mentioned for fasting in the Rajab month in hadiths:

  • Going to the Heaven and avoiding the Hell
  • One's requests from God being responded and one's sins being forgiven
  • Protection from tortures of the grave

'Umra

According to hadiths, it is highly recommended to perform 'umra rituals in the Rajab month. Mu'awiya b. 'Ammar is quoted as asking Imam al-Sadiq (a) which one is superior: performing 'umar rituals in the Rajab month or in the Ramadan month. He replied: in the Rajab month.

Recommended Practices

The following practices are recommended in the Rajab month according to Mafatih al-jinan:

Day Recommended practices of the Rajab month
Common practices
  • In every day of the Rajab month, the following prayer quoted from Imam al-Sajjad (a) is recommended:
یا مَنْ یمْلِک حَوَائِجَ السَّائِلِینَ وَ یعْلَمُ ضَمِیرَ الصَّامِتِینَ لِکلِّ مَسْأَلَةٍ مِنْک سَمْعٌ حَاضِرٌ وَ جَوَابٌ عَتِیدٌ اللَّهُمَّ وَ مَوَاعِیدُک الصَّادِقَةُ وَ أَیادِیک الْفَاضِلَةُ وَ رَحْمَتُک الْوَاسِعَةُ فَأَسْأَلُک أَنْ تُصَلِّی عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تَقْضِی حَوَائِجِی لِلدُّنْیا وَ الْآخِرَةِ إِنَّک عَلَی کلِّ شَیءٍ قَدِیرٌ.

"O He who administers and manages the wants of the needy; (who) is aware of that which is hidden in the heart of the silent sufferers, every problem receives Thy attention and is settled well. O Allah Thy promises come true. Thy favours are many, Thy Mercy is extensive, Therefore I beseech Thee to send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, and fulfil my desires in this world and in the world to come, verily Thou art able to do all things."

خَابَ الْوَافِدُونَ عَلَی غَیرِک وَ خَسِرَ الْمُتَعَرِّضُونَ إِلا لَک وَ ضَاعَ الْمُلِمُّونَ إِلا بِک وَ أَجْدَبَ الْمُنْتَجِعُونَ إِلا مَنِ انْتَجَعَ فَضْلَک بَابُک مَفْتُوحٌ لِلرَّاغِبِینَ وَ خَیرُک مَبْذُولٌ لِلطَّالِبِینَ وَ فَضْلُک مُبَاحٌ لِلسَّائِلِینَ وَ نَیلُک مُتَاحٌ لِلْآمِلِینَ وَ رِزْقُک مَبْسُوطٌ لِمَنْ عَصَاک وَ حِلْمُک مُعْتَرِضٌ لِمَنْ نَاوَاک عَادَتُک الْإِحْسَانُ إِلَی الْمُسِیئِینَ وَ سَبِیلُک الْإِبْقَاءُ عَلَی الْمُعْتَدِینَ اللَّهُمَّ فَاهْدِنِی هُدَی الْمُهْتَدِینَ وَ ارْزُقْنِی اجْتِهَادَ الْمُجْتَهِدِینَ وَلا تَجْعَلْنِی مِنَ الْغَافِلِینَ الْمُبْعَدِینَ وَ اغْفِرْ لِی یوْمَ الدِّینِ.

"Run to a dead end the hoodwinked passengers who looked for other than Thee, Lost their way, lured and swindled, those who hanged onto and held fast anything that offers itself, not linked with Thee, cried in anguish, frightened and agitated, those who stayed and took shelter anywhere other than Thee, went waste efforts of those who tried to profit from that which they came across instead of having the wholesome benefits from Thee. Thy door is wide open for those who call humbly and fervently on Thee, Success, high – mindedness, and piety are freely available to those who pray and request Thee, Thy favours are common and open to all when besought submissively, They gifts come in long strides when asked for by the hopeful supplicants, tears in their eyes, the daily bread (from Thee) is openly spread out for one and all, even the transgressors, Thy indulgence reach out (even) to those who keep themselves far from Thee, Thy usual disposition is to do favour (even) to those who stir up mischief, Thy system looks after and keeps alive (even) those who are hostile to Thee. O Allah, therefore, keep me on the path of those who are rightly guided, give me courage to strive like those who exert themselves fully in Thy way, and do not let me be among the negligent who have gone far in their forgetfulness, forgive me on the Day of Judgement."

There is a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) recommending the following supplication:

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّی أَسْأَلُک صَبْرَ الشَّاکرِینَ لَک وَ عَمَلَ الْخَائِفِینَ مِنْک وَ یقِینَ الْعَابِدِینَ لَک اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الْعَلِی الْعَظِیمُ وَ أَنَا عَبْدُک الْبَائِسُ الْفَقِیرُ أَنْتَ الْغَنِی الْحَمِیدُ وَ أَنَا الْعَبْدُ الذَّلِیلُ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ وَ امْنُنْ بِغِنَاک عَلَی فَقْرِی وَ بِحِلْمِک عَلَی جَهْلِی وَ بِقُوَّتِک عَلَی ضَعْفِی یا قَوِی یا عَزِیزُ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ الْأَوْصِیاءِ الْمَرْضِیینَ وَ اکفِنِی مَا أَهَمَّنِی مِنْ أَمْرِ الدُّنْیا وَ الْآخِرَةِ یا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِینَ.

"O Allah I ask Thee for the poise and composure of the thankful, for the disposition of the cautious in awe of Thy reverence, for the sure certain dedication of the adorers. O Allah Thou art the Highest Almighty, and I am Thy bondman, a poor miserable needy, Thou art the praiseworthy who has enough and is above needs, and I am insignificant indistinct dependent, O Allah send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, show favour to and bestow benefits on me, on account of Thy infinite sufficiency in my distress; on account of Thy indulgence in my ignorance; on account of Thy might in my weakness, O Mighty! O Almighty! O Allah send blessings on Muhammad and on his descendants, the approved praiseworthy successors, and free me from that which breaks my heart and turns me Gray with worry in worldly matters and about my fate on the Day of Judgement, O the Most Merciful!"

  • After the morning and nightly (maghrib and 'Isha') prayers,
يا مَنْ اَرْجُوهُ لِكُلِّ خَيْرٍ، وَ آمَنُ سَخَطَهُ عِنْدَ كُلِّ شَرٍّ، يا مَنْ يُعْطِى الْكَثيرَ بِالْقَليلِ، يا مَنْ يُعْطى‏ مَنْ سَئَلَهُ، يا مَنْ يُعْطى‏ مَنْ لَمْ يَسْئَلْهُ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْهُ‏ تَحَنُّناً مِنْهُ وَ رَحْمَةً، اَعْطِنى‏ بِمَسْئَلَتى‏ اِيَّاكَ، جَميعَ خَيْرِ الدُّنْيا وَ جَميعَ خَيْرِ الْأخِرَةِ، وَ اصْرِفْ عَنّى‏ بِمَسْئَلَتى‏ اِيّاكَ جَميعَ شَرِّ الدُّنْيا، وَ شَرِّ الْأخِرَةِ، فَاِنَّهُ‏ غَيْرُ مَنْقُوصٍ مااَعْطَيْتَ، وَ زِدْنى‏ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ يا كَريمُ ياذَا الْجَلالِ ‏وَ الْاِكْرامِ، يا ذَاالنَّعْمآءِ وَ الْجُودِ، يا ذَا الْمَنِّ وَ الطَّوْلِ، حَرِّمْ شَيْبَتى‏ عَلَى النَّارِ

O he from whom I ask for and expect fulfillment in every good (I do); and in whom I confide to seek safety from His displeasure for every evil I do! O He who gives much in return of very little (good deeds)! O He who puts into the hands of the supplicant what he asks for, O He who (also) let needy, who does not ask for, have what he needs, though he remembers Him not, Feels compassion, and takes pity on them! Give me as a gift good in all my objectives in this world and in the Hereafter, let me free myself from evil in all my activities in this world and in the Hereafter, because, surely, what Thou gives never goes waste or grows less, and from Thy bounties let me have more and more O the Generous Compassionate.

  • According to a hadith from the Prophet (s), "if a person recites "أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ الَّذِی لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِیک لَهُ وَ أَتُوبُ إِلَیهِ" (I ask forgiveness of Allah, who there is no god save He and no other; has no partner; and I turn repentant to Him) a hundred times in Rajab and then pays for a charity, God will bless him with His mercy, and if a person recites it four hundred times, God will reward him like a martyr.
  • There is a hadith from the Prophet (s) saying that: if a person recites "لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللهُ" (there's no god except Allah) a thousand times in the Rajab month, God will give him or her 100,000 rewards and builds 100 towns for him or her in the Heaven.
  • There is a hadith according to which one should recite "أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ وَ أَتُوبُ إِلَیهِ" (I ask forgiveness of Allah, and I turn repentant to Him), 70 times in the morning and 70 times at night, and one should after that, raise his or her hands to the sky and recite: "اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِی وَ تُبْ عَلَی". If this person dies in the Rajab month, God will be satisfied with him or her, and because of the Rajab month, he or she will not be touched by the Hell.
  • Reciting "أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ ذَا الْجَلالِ وَ الْإِکرَامِ مِنْ جَمِیعِ الذُّنُوبِ وَ الْآثَامِ" a thousand times during this month.
  • Fasting three days in this month, especially on Thursday, Friday and Saturday.
  • According to a hadith from the Prophet (s): God will forgive the sins of the person who says 10 rak'as of prayers in one of the Rajab's nights, reciting in each rak'a Sura al-Hamd and Sura al-Kafirun once, and Sura al-Ikhlas three times.
  • Reciting the supplication that starts with
  • The second supplication of al-Nahiya al-Muqaddasa,
First night
  • Upon seeing the moon, one should recite the following: "اللَّهُمَّ أَهِلَّهُ عَلَینَا بِالْأَمْنِ وَ الْإِیمَانِ وَ السَّلامَةِ وَ الْإِسْلامِ رَبِّی وَ رَبُّک اللهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ"
  • Ziyarah of Imam al-Husayn (a)
  • Saying two rak'as of prayers after the 'isha' prayers: in the first rak'a, Sura al-Hamd and Sura al-Sharh should be recited once and Sura al-Ikhlas should be recited three times; and in the second rak'a, Sura al-Hamd and Sura al-Sharh as well as Sura al-Ikhlas and Mu'awadhatayn. After the prayers, "
    لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللهُ
    " and salawat should be recited 30 times.
First day
  • Fasting
  • Ghusl
  • Ziyarah of Imam al-Husayn (a)
Thirteenth night Saying two rak'as of prayers in each of which Sura al-Hamd, Sura Yasin, Sura al-Furqan and Sura al-Ikhlas are recited.
Thirteenth day
  • This is the first day of Ayyam al-Bid (the three white days).
  • Fasting
Fifteenth night
  • Saying six rak'as of prayers with three salams, just like that of the thirteenth night.
  • Ghusl
  • Vigilance (ihya')
  • Ziyarah of Imam al-Husayn (a)
  • Saying thirty rak'as of prayers in each of which Sura al-Hamd is recited once and Sura al-Ikhlas is recited ten times.
  • Twelve rak'as of prayers every two of which ends with a salam. In each rak'a, Sura al-Hamd, Sura al-Ikhlas, Sura al-Falaq, Sura al-Nas, al-Kursi Verse and Sura al-Qadr should recited 4 times each, and after the prayer, the following should be recited: "اَللهُ اَللهُ رَبّی لا اُشْرِک بِهِ شَیئا وَلا اَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِه وَلِیا".
Fifteenth day
  • Ghusl
  • Ziyarah of Imam al-Husayn (a)
  • Saying two prayers each with two rak'as, and after the prayer, the following supplication should be recited:
اَللّهُمَّ یا مُذِلَّ کلِّ جَبّارٍ وَ یا مُعِزَّ الْمُؤْمِنینَ اَنْتَ کهْفی حینَ تُعْیینِی الْمَذاهِبُ وَ اَنْتَ بارِئُ خَلْقی رَحْمَةً بی‌وَ قَدْ کنْتَ عَنْ خَلْقی غَنِیاً وَ لَوْ لا رَحْمَتُک لَکنْتُ مِنَ الْهالِکینَ وَ اَنْتَ مُؤَیدی بِالنَّصْرِ عَلی اَعْداَّئی وَ لَوْ لا نَصْرُک اِیای لَکنْتُ مِنَ الْمَفْضُوحینَ یا مُرْسِلَ الرَّحْمَةِ مِنْ مَعادِنِها وَ مُنْشِئَ الْبَرَکةِ مِنْ مَواضِعِها یا مَنْ خَصَّ نَفْسَهُ بِالشُّمُوخِ وَالرِّفْعَةِ فَاَوْلِیاَّؤُهُ بِعِزِّهِ یتَعَزَّزُونَ وَ یا مَنْ وَضَعَتْ لَهُ الْمُلُوک نیرَ الْمَذَلَّةِ عَلی اَعْناقِهِمْ فَهُمْ مِنْ سَطَواتِهِ خاَّئِفُونَ اَسئَلُک بِکینُونِیتِک الَّتِی اشْتَقَقْتَها مِنْ کبْرِیاَّئِک وَ اَسئَلُک بِکبْرِیاَّئِک الَّتِی اشْتَقَقْتَها مِنْ عِزَّتِک وَ اَسئَلُک بِعِزَّتِک الَّتِی اسْتَوَیتَ بِها عَلی عَرْشِک فَخَلَقْتَ بِها جَمیعَ خَلْقِک فَهُمْ لَک مُذْعِنُونَ اَنْ تُصَلِّی عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ اَهْلِ بَیتِهِ.

"O my Allah! O He who puts the proud tyrants to shame! O He who glorifies the faithfuls! Thou was my choice at once when I came across many schools of thought (religions), Thou brought me into existence, a favour to me, though Thou was able to dispense with my creation, not needing me at all. If not for Thy mercy I am of those who perish. Thou makes available reliable support to have an upper hand over my adversaries. If not for Thy help I am of those who shatter and break into pieces. O He who sends forth mercy from its permanent self-generating origin, and brings out blessing from its depository. O He who has reserved for Himself that which is the highest, and the loftiest, so His intimate friends, on account of His might, vie in honour and glory. O He before whom bend low the rulers, their necks burdened with the yoke of disgrace and abasement, panic-stricken, scared stiff, in awe of His absolute power. I beseech Thee in the name of Thy Supreme Being that derives its meaning from Thy timeless eternal greatness, I beseech Thee in the name Thy timeless eternal Greatness that derives its meaning from Thy omnipotent authority; I beseech Thee in the name of Thy omnipotent authority with which Thou occupied the Arsh, and created all that which has been created by Thee; so they, unto Thee, are very obedient, to send blessing on Muhammad and on the people of his house."

Night before Rajab 27 (day of bi'tha
  • Ghusl
  • Ziyarah of Amir al-Mu'minin (a)
  • Saying 12 rak'as of prayers in each of which Sura al-Hamd, Sura al-Falaq and Sura al-Nas are recited once and Sura al-Ikhlas is recited four times, and after the prayer the following is recited: "لا اله الا الله والله اکبر الحمد لله وسبحان الله ولا حول ولا قوه الا بالله العلی العظیم".
  • This night is also called "Laylat al-Mahya" that is, the night of vigilance.
Rajab 27 (day of Bi'that
  • Ghusl
  • Fasting
  • Ziyarah of the Prophet (s)
  • Ziyarah of Amir al-Mu'minin (a)
  • Saying 12 rak'as of prayers in each of which Sura al-Hamd and Sura Yasin are recited, and after every prayer, Sura al-Hamd should be recited four times, and then the following should be recited four times: "لا اله الا الله والله اکبر والحمد لله وسبحان الله ولا حول ولا قوه الا بالله العلی العظیم", and then the following should be recited four times: "الله ربی لا اشرک به شیئا".

Important Historical Anniversaries

References

  • The Material for this article is mainly taken from رجب in Farsi WikiShia.