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Lunar Hijri Months
Rajab (Arabic: رَجَب) or Rajab al-Murajjab (Arabic: رَجَب المُرَجَّب) is the seventh month of the lunar year. Along with Dhu l-Qa'da, Dhu l-Hijja and Muharram, it counts as one of the haram months. According to hadiths, it is recommended to perform 'umra, fast, and worship God in this month.
The first Thursday night of the Rajab month is called Laylat al-Ragha'ib in which special practices are recommended by hadiths. The tradition of i'tikaf is practiced from 13th through 15th of this month—known as Ayyam al-Bid (the white days).
The most important historical event that took place in Rajab is the bi'that (the first revelation) of the Prophet (s). The other important events that occurred in this month include the birthdays of Imam al-Baqir (a), Imam al-Jawad (a), and Imam 'Ali (a), and the martyrdoms of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-Kazim (a).
It is supererogatory or recommended to visit the shrines of the Infallibles (a) in this month, especially visiting Imam al-Husayn (a) at the beginning and the middle of the month and visiting Imam al-Rida (a).
The word "Rajab" literally means to honor and respect. Thus the month has been called so because it is honored and respected. According to lexicological sources, Arabs respected this month even before the emergence of Islam and avoided fighting therein.
The Rajab month is also called "Rajab al-Fard" (the lonely Rajab) because it is discontinuous with the rest of the haram months all of which are consecutive: Dhu l-Qa'da, Dhu l-Hajja, and Muharram. It is also called "Rajab al-Mudarr" because the tribe of Mudarr (who was one of the Prophet (s)'s ancestors) particularly respected this month. It is also called "Rajab al-Asamm", "Rajab al-Murajjab", "Rajab al-Haram", "Munsal al-Asinna" and "Munsal al-Al".
The Prophet (s) is quoted as saying with respect to the appellation of the month with "Rajab al-Asabb" (the pouring Rajab) and "Rajab al-Asamm" (the mute Rajab):
- "the Rajab month is called "Asabb" because the divine mercy is poured on my people in this month, and it is called "Asamm" because it is forbidden to fight the polytheists in this month and it is one of the haram or prohibited months".
The Rajab month was particularly respected and honored by Arabs in the period of Jahiliyya; it was forbidden to fight, murder, plunder ,and start a camisado in this month, and they were committed to such prohibitions. This is why it was called "Rajab al-Asamm" (the mute Rajab). After the emergence of Islam, the month was yet more respected and deemed sacred.
'Abd Allah b. al-'Abbas is quoted as saying that when the Rajab month began, Muslims gathered around the Prophet (s). After praising God and mentioning the previous prophets, he said:
- O' Muslims! A great, blessed month has spread its shadow on you; this is the month when the divine mercy pours on whoever worships God except a polytheist or a heretic. Verily there is a night in the Rajab month in which a vigilant who says prayers the whole night will have his or her body protected from the Hell; a thousand angels shake hands with him or her, and a thousand angels ask God for his or her forgiveness until the next year. [The Prophet (s) went on:] If a person fasts a day in the Rajab month, he or she will be protected from fears of the Dooms Day and will be saved from the Hell.
Divine Rewards for Worships
Different divine rewards are mentioned for fasting in the Rajab month in hadiths:
- Going to the Heaven and avoiding the Hell
- One's requests from God being responded and one's sins being forgiven
- Protection from tortures of the grave
According to hadiths, it is highly recommended to perform 'umra rituals in the Rajab month. Mu'awiya b. 'Ammar is quoted as asking Imam al-Sadiq (a) which one is superior: performing 'umar rituals in the Rajab month or in the Ramadan month. He replied: in the Rajab month.
The following practices are recommended in the Rajab month according to Mafatih al-jinan:
|Day||Recommended practices of the Rajab month|
یا مَنْ یمْلِک حَوَائِجَ السَّائِلِینَ وَ یعْلَمُ ضَمِیرَ الصَّامِتِینَ لِکلِّ مَسْأَلَةٍ مِنْک سَمْعٌ حَاضِرٌ وَ جَوَابٌ عَتِیدٌ اللَّهُمَّ وَ مَوَاعِیدُک الصَّادِقَةُ وَ أَیادِیک الْفَاضِلَةُ وَ رَحْمَتُک الْوَاسِعَةُ فَأَسْأَلُک أَنْ تُصَلِّی عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تَقْضِی حَوَائِجِی لِلدُّنْیا وَ الْآخِرَةِ إِنَّک عَلَی کلِّ شَیءٍ قَدِیرٌ.
"O He who administers and manages the wants of the needy; (who) is aware of that which is hidden in the heart of the silent sufferers, every problem receives Thy attention and is settled well. O Allah Thy promises come true. Thy favours are many, Thy Mercy is extensive, Therefore I beseech Thee to send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, and fulfil my desires in this world and in the world to come, verily Thou art able to do all things."
خَابَ الْوَافِدُونَ عَلَی غَیرِک وَ خَسِرَ الْمُتَعَرِّضُونَ إِلا لَک وَ ضَاعَ الْمُلِمُّونَ إِلا بِک وَ أَجْدَبَ الْمُنْتَجِعُونَ إِلا مَنِ انْتَجَعَ فَضْلَک بَابُک مَفْتُوحٌ لِلرَّاغِبِینَ وَ خَیرُک مَبْذُولٌ لِلطَّالِبِینَ وَ فَضْلُک مُبَاحٌ لِلسَّائِلِینَ وَ نَیلُک مُتَاحٌ لِلْآمِلِینَ وَ رِزْقُک مَبْسُوطٌ لِمَنْ عَصَاک وَ حِلْمُک مُعْتَرِضٌ لِمَنْ نَاوَاک عَادَتُک الْإِحْسَانُ إِلَی الْمُسِیئِینَ وَ سَبِیلُک الْإِبْقَاءُ عَلَی الْمُعْتَدِینَ اللَّهُمَّ فَاهْدِنِی هُدَی الْمُهْتَدِینَ وَ ارْزُقْنِی اجْتِهَادَ الْمُجْتَهِدِینَ وَلا تَجْعَلْنِی مِنَ الْغَافِلِینَ الْمُبْعَدِینَ وَ اغْفِرْ لِی یوْمَ الدِّینِ.
"Run to a dead end the hoodwinked passengers who looked for other than Thee, Lost their way, lured and swindled, those who hanged onto and held fast anything that offers itself, not linked with Thee, cried in anguish, frightened and agitated, those who stayed and took shelter anywhere other than Thee, went waste efforts of those who tried to profit from that which they came across instead of having the wholesome benefits from Thee. Thy door is wide open for those who call humbly and fervently on Thee, Success, high – mindedness, and piety are freely available to those who pray and request Thee, Thy favours are common and open to all when besought submissively, They gifts come in long strides when asked for by the hopeful supplicants, tears in their eyes, the daily bread (from Thee) is openly spread out for one and all, even the transgressors, Thy indulgence reach out (even) to those who keep themselves far from Thee, Thy usual disposition is to do favour (even) to those who stir up mischief, Thy system looks after and keeps alive (even) those who are hostile to Thee. O Allah, therefore, keep me on the path of those who are rightly guided, give me courage to strive like those who exert themselves fully in Thy way, and do not let me be among the negligent who have gone far in their forgetfulness, forgive me on the Day of Judgement."
There is a hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) recommending the following supplication:
اَللَّهُمَّ إِنِّی أَسْأَلُک صَبْرَ الشَّاکرِینَ لَک وَ عَمَلَ الْخَائِفِینَ مِنْک وَ یقِینَ الْعَابِدِینَ لَک اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الْعَلِی الْعَظِیمُ وَ أَنَا عَبْدُک الْبَائِسُ الْفَقِیرُ أَنْتَ الْغَنِی الْحَمِیدُ وَ أَنَا الْعَبْدُ الذَّلِیلُ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ وَ امْنُنْ بِغِنَاک عَلَی فَقْرِی وَ بِحِلْمِک عَلَی جَهْلِی وَ بِقُوَّتِک عَلَی ضَعْفِی یا قَوِی یا عَزِیزُ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ الْأَوْصِیاءِ الْمَرْضِیینَ وَ اکفِنِی مَا أَهَمَّنِی مِنْ أَمْرِ الدُّنْیا وَ الْآخِرَةِ یا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِینَ.
"O Allah I ask Thee for the poise and composure of the thankful, for the disposition of the cautious in awe of Thy reverence, for the sure certain dedication of the adorers. O Allah Thou art the Highest Almighty, and I am Thy bondman, a poor miserable needy, Thou art the praiseworthy who has enough and is above needs, and I am insignificant indistinct dependent, O Allah send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, show favour to and bestow benefits on me, on account of Thy infinite sufficiency in my distress; on account of Thy indulgence in my ignorance; on account of Thy might in my weakness, O Mighty! O Almighty! O Allah send blessings on Muhammad and on his descendants, the approved praiseworthy successors, and free me from that which breaks my heart and turns me Gray with worry in worldly matters and about my fate on the Day of Judgement, O the Most Merciful!"
يا مَنْ اَرْجُوهُ لِكُلِّ خَيْرٍ، وَ آمَنُ سَخَطَهُ عِنْدَ كُلِّ شَرٍّ، يا مَنْ يُعْطِى الْكَثيرَ بِالْقَليلِ، يا مَنْ يُعْطى مَنْ سَئَلَهُ، يا مَنْ يُعْطى مَنْ لَمْ يَسْئَلْهُ وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْهُ تَحَنُّناً مِنْهُ وَ رَحْمَةً، اَعْطِنى بِمَسْئَلَتى اِيَّاكَ، جَميعَ خَيْرِ الدُّنْيا وَ جَميعَ خَيْرِ الْأخِرَةِ، وَ اصْرِفْ عَنّى بِمَسْئَلَتى اِيّاكَ جَميعَ شَرِّ الدُّنْيا، وَ شَرِّ الْأخِرَةِ، فَاِنَّهُ غَيْرُ مَنْقُوصٍ مااَعْطَيْتَ، وَ زِدْنى مِنْ فَضْلِكَ يا كَريمُ ياذَا الْجَلالِ وَ الْاِكْرامِ، يا ذَاالنَّعْمآءِ وَ الْجُودِ، يا ذَا الْمَنِّ وَ الطَّوْلِ، حَرِّمْ شَيْبَتى عَلَى النَّارِ
O he from whom I ask for and expect fulfillment in every good (I do); and in whom I confide to seek safety from His displeasure for every evil I do! O He who gives much in return of very little (good deeds)! O He who puts into the hands of the supplicant what he asks for, O He who (also) let needy, who does not ask for, have what he needs, though he remembers Him not, Feels compassion, and takes pity on them! Give me as a gift good in all my objectives in this world and in the Hereafter, let me free myself from evil in all my activities in this world and in the Hereafter, because, surely, what Thou gives never goes waste or grows less, and from Thy bounties let me have more and more O the Generous Compassionate.
|Thirteenth night||Saying two rak'as of prayers in each of which Sura al-Hamd, Sura Yasin, Sura al-Furqan and Sura al-Ikhlas are recited.|
اَللّهُمَّ یا مُذِلَّ کلِّ جَبّارٍ وَ یا مُعِزَّ الْمُؤْمِنینَ اَنْتَ کهْفی حینَ تُعْیینِی الْمَذاهِبُ وَ اَنْتَ بارِئُ خَلْقی رَحْمَةً بیوَ قَدْ کنْتَ عَنْ خَلْقی غَنِیاً وَ لَوْ لا رَحْمَتُک لَکنْتُ مِنَ الْهالِکینَ وَ اَنْتَ مُؤَیدی بِالنَّصْرِ عَلی اَعْداَّئی وَ لَوْ لا نَصْرُک اِیای لَکنْتُ مِنَ الْمَفْضُوحینَ یا مُرْسِلَ الرَّحْمَةِ مِنْ مَعادِنِها وَ مُنْشِئَ الْبَرَکةِ مِنْ مَواضِعِها یا مَنْ خَصَّ نَفْسَهُ بِالشُّمُوخِ وَالرِّفْعَةِ فَاَوْلِیاَّؤُهُ بِعِزِّهِ یتَعَزَّزُونَ وَ یا مَنْ وَضَعَتْ لَهُ الْمُلُوک نیرَ الْمَذَلَّةِ عَلی اَعْناقِهِمْ فَهُمْ مِنْ سَطَواتِهِ خاَّئِفُونَ اَسئَلُک بِکینُونِیتِک الَّتِی اشْتَقَقْتَها مِنْ کبْرِیاَّئِک وَ اَسئَلُک بِکبْرِیاَّئِک الَّتِی اشْتَقَقْتَها مِنْ عِزَّتِک وَ اَسئَلُک بِعِزَّتِک الَّتِی اسْتَوَیتَ بِها عَلی عَرْشِک فَخَلَقْتَ بِها جَمیعَ خَلْقِک فَهُمْ لَک مُذْعِنُونَ اَنْ تُصَلِّی عَلی مُحَمَّدٍ وَ اَهْلِ بَیتِهِ.
"O my Allah! O He who puts the proud tyrants to shame! O He who glorifies the faithfuls! Thou was my choice at once when I came across many schools of thought (religions), Thou brought me into existence, a favour to me, though Thou was able to dispense with my creation, not needing me at all. If not for Thy mercy I am of those who perish. Thou makes available reliable support to have an upper hand over my adversaries. If not for Thy help I am of those who shatter and break into pieces. O He who sends forth mercy from its permanent self-generating origin, and brings out blessing from its depository. O He who has reserved for Himself that which is the highest, and the loftiest, so His intimate friends, on account of His might, vie in honour and glory. O He before whom bend low the rulers, their necks burdened with the yoke of disgrace and abasement, panic-stricken, scared stiff, in awe of His absolute power. I beseech Thee in the name of Thy Supreme Being that derives its meaning from Thy timeless eternal greatness, I beseech Thee in the name Thy timeless eternal Greatness that derives its meaning from Thy omnipotent authority; I beseech Thee in the name of Thy omnipotent authority with which Thou occupied the Arsh, and created all that which has been created by Thee; so they, unto Thee, are very obedient, to send blessing on Muhammad and on the people of his house."
|Night before Rajab 27 (day of bi'tha||
|Rajab 27 (day of Bi'that||
Important Historical Anniversaries
- Main article: Historical Anniversaries of Rajab
- Birth of Imam al-Baqir (a) Rajab 1, 57/677
- Martyrdom of Imam al-Hadi (a) Rajab 3, 254/868
- Birth of Imam al-Jawad (a) Rajab 10, 195/811
- Birth of Imam 'Ali (a) Rajab 13, 23BH/599
- Demise of Lady Zaynab (a) Rajab 15, 62/682
- Martyrdom of Imam al-Kazim (a) Rajab 25, 183/799
- Bi'tha of the Prophet Muhammad (s) Rajab 27, 13BH/609
- The Material for this article is mainly taken from رجب in Farsi WikiShia.